CHAPTER 1 : REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

CHAPTER 1

REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

  • Life span –The period from birth to the natural death of an organism represents its life span.
  • life spans of organisms are not necessarily correlated with their sizes.
  • Life span of various organisms –

Name of organism

Life-span
Elephant 60–90 years
Dog 20–30 years
Butterfly 1-2 weeks
Crow 15 years
Parrot 140 years
Cow 20–25 years
Horse 60 years
Crocodile 60 years
Fruit fly 30 days
Tortoise 100-150 years
Rose 5–7 years
Banana tree 25 years
Rice plant 3–4 months
Banyan tree 200 years

Whatever be the life span, death of every individual organism is a certainty, i.e., no individual is immortal, except single-celled organisms.

  • There is no natural death in single-celled organisms as they divide and form 2 new cells.
  • Reproduction–
    • it is defined as a biological process in which an organism gives rise to young ones (offspring) similar to itself.
    • The offspring grow, mature and in turn produce new offspring. Thus, there is a cycle of birth, growth and death.
    • Reproduction enables the continuity of the species, generation after generation.
    • genetic variation is created and inherited during reproduction.
    • There is a large diversity in the mechanism of reproduction of organisms. The organism’s habitat, its internal physiology and several other factors are collectively responsible for how it reproduces.
  • Type of reproduction –

Reproduction is of two types–

When offspring is produced by a single parent with or without the involvement of gamete formation, the reproduction is Asexual.

When two parents (opposite sex) participate in the reproductive process and also involve fusion of male and female gametes, it is called sexual reproduction.

  • Asexual Reproduction
    • In this method, a single individual (parent) is capable of producing offspring.
    • The offspring that are produced are not only identical to one another but are also exact copies of their parent.These offspring are also genetically identical to each other. The term clone is used to describe such morphologically and genetically similar individuals.
    • Asexual reproduction is common among single-celled organisms, and in plants and animals with relatively simple organisations.
        • Binary Fission – In many single-celled organisms cell divides into two halves and each rapidly grows into an adult (e.g., Amoeba, Paramecium).
        • Budding – In yeast, the division is unequal and small buds are produced that remain attached initially to the parent cell which, eventually gets separated and mature into new yeast organisms (cells).
        • Special reproductive structures –Members of the Kingdom Fungi and simple plants such as algae reproduce through special asexual reproductive structures. The most common of these structures are zoospores that usually are microscopic motile structures. Other common asexual reproductive structures are conidia (Penicillium), buds (Hydra) and gemmules (sponge).
        • Vegetative propagation –vegetative reproduction is also asexual process as only one parent is involved. in plants, the term vegetative reproduction is frequently used. e.g., the units of vegetative propagation in plants –runner, rhizome, sucker, tuber, offset, bulb. These structures are called vegetative propagules.In Protists and Monerans, (All unicellular) the organism or the parent cell divides into two to give rise to new individuals. Thus, in these organisms cell division is itself a mode of reproduction.

Water hyacinth, an aquatic weed, also known as ‘terror of Bengal’ propagate vegetatively. Earlier this plant was introduced in India because of its beautiful flowers and shape of leaves. Since it can propagate vegetatively at a phenomenal rate and spread all over the water body in a short period of time, it drain oxygen from water body and cause death of fishes. (Eutrophication)

Bryophyllumshow vegetative propagation from the notches present at margins of leaves.

    • A sexual reproduction is the common method of reproduction in organisms that have a relatively simple organisation, like algae and fungi.
    • These organisms shift to sexual method of reproduction just before the onset of adverse conditions.
    • In higher plants both Asexual (vegetative) as well as sexual modes of reproduction are exhibited.
    • In most of the animals only sexual mode of reproduction is present.

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  • Sexual Reproduction

    • Sexual reproduction involves formation of the male and female gametes, either by the same individual or by different individuals of the opposite sex. These gametes fuse to form the zygote which develops to form the new organism.
    • It is an elaborate, complex and slow process as compared to asexual reproduction.
    • Because of the fusion of male and female gametes, sexual reproduction results in offspring that are not identical to the parents or amongst themselves.
    • Plants, animals, fungishow great diversity in external morphology, internal structure and physiology, but in sexual reproduction they share a similar pattern.
    • Juvenile / vegetative phase – All organisms have to reach a certain stage of growth and maturity in their life, before they can reproduce sexually. That period of growth is called the juvenile phase. It is known as vegetative phase in plants.
    • Reproductive phase –the beginning of the reproductive phase can be seen easily in the higher plants when they come to flower.
    • In some plants, where flowering occurs more than once, inter-flowering period is also known as juvenile period.
    • Plants-the annual and biennial types, show clear cut vegetative, reproductive and senescent phases, but in the perennial species it is very difficult to clearly define these phases.
    • Bamboo species flower only once in their life time, generally after 50-100 years, produce large number of fruits and die.
    • Strobilanthus kunthiana (neelakuranji), flowers once in 12 years. It is found in hilly areas in Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
    • In animals, the juvenile phase is followed by morphological and physiological changes prior to active reproductive behaviour.
    • birds living in nature lay eggs only seasonally. However, birds in captivity (as in poultry farms) can be made to lay eggs throughout the year. In this case, laying eggs is not related to reproduction but is a commercial exploitation for human welfare.
    • The females of placental mammals exhibit cyclical changes in the activities of ovaries and accessory ducts as well as hormones during the reproductive phase.
    • In non-primate mammals like cows, sheep, rats, deers, dogs, tiger, etc., such cyclical changes during reproduction are called oestrus cycle where as in primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) it is called menstrual cycle.
    • Many mammals, especially those living in natural, wild conditions exhibit such cycles only during favourable seasons in their reproductive phase and are therefore called seasonal breeders. Many other mammals are reproductively active throughout their reproductive phase and hence are called continuous breeders.
    • Senescent phase – The end of reproductive phase can be considered as one of the parameters of senescence or old age. There are concomitant changes in the body (like slowing of metabolism, etc.) during this last phase of life span. Old age ultimately leads to death.
    • In both plants and animals, hormones are responsible for the transitions between the three phases. Interaction between hormones and certain environmental factors regulate the reproductive processes and the associated behavioural expressions of organisms.
  • Events in sexual reproduction
    • Sexual reproduction is characterised by the fusion (or fertilisation) of the male and female gametes, the formation of zygote and embryo
    • These sequential events may be grouped into three distinct stages namely, the pre-fertilisation, fertilisation and the post-fertilisation events.
  • Pre-fertilisation Events
    • These include all the events of sexual reproduction prior to the fusion of gametes.
    • The two main pre-fertilisation events aregametogenesisandgamete transfer.
    • Gametogenesis
      • It refers to the process of formation of the two types of gametes – male and female.
      • Gametes are haploid cells.
      • In some algae the two gametes are so similar in appearance that it is not possible to categorise them into male and female gametes.They are hence, are calledhomogametes (isogametes).
      • However, in a majority of sexually reproducing organisms the gametes produced are of two morphologically distinct types (heterogametes). In such organisms the male gamete is called theantherozoid or sperm and the female gamete is called the egg or

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Sexuality in organisms:

  • Plants may have both male and female reproductive structures in the same plant (bisexual) or on different plants (unisexual).
  • In several fungi and plants, terms such as homothallic and monoecious are used to denote the bisexual condition and heterothallic and dioecious are the terms used to describe unisexual condition.
  • In flowering plants, the unisexual male flower is staminate, e., bearing stamens, while the female ispistillate or bearing pistils.
  • e.g., examples of monoecious plants – cucurbitsand coconuts
  • dioecious plants – Papayaand date palm.
  • Earthworms, sponge, tapeworm and leech are examples of bisexual animals (hermaphrodite). Cockroach is an example of a unisexual species.
  • Cell division during gamete formation:
  • Gametes in all heterogametic species are of two types namely, male and Gametes are haploid though the parent plant body from which they arise may be either haploid or diploid.
  • A haploid parent produces gametes by mitotic division like in monera, fungi, algae and bryophytes
  • In pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms and most of the animals including human beings, the parental body isIn these, specialised cells calledmeiocytes (gamete mother cell) undergo meiosis.
  • At the end of meiosis, only one set of chromosomesgets incorporated into each

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Name of organism Chromosome number in meiocyte (2n) Chromosome number in gamete (n)
Human beings 46 23
House fly 12 6
Rat 42 21
Dog 78 39
Cat 38 19
Fruit fly 8 4
Ophioglossum (a fern) 1260 630
Apple 34 17
Rice 24 12
Maize 20 10
Potato 48 24
Butterfly 380 190
Onion 32 16
  • Gamete Transfer:
  • After formation, male and female gametes must be physically brought together to facilitate fusion (fertilisation).
  • In most of organisms, male gamete is motile and the female gamete is stationary.
  • Exceptions – few fungi and algae in which both types of gametes are motile.
  • For transfer of male gametes, a medium is needed. In several simple plants like algae, bryophytes and pteridophytes, water is the medium for gamete transfer.
  • A large number of the male gametes, however, fail to reach the female gametes. To compensate this loss of male gametes during transport, the number of male gametes produced is very high.
  • In seed plants, pollen grains are the carriers of male gametes and ovule have the egg. Pollen grains produced in anthers therefore, have tobe transferred to the stigma before it can lead to fertilization.
  • In bisexual, self-fertilising plants, e.g., peas, transfer of pollen grains to the stigma is relatively easy as anthers and stigma are located close to each other; pollen grains soon after they are shed, come in contact with the stigma.
  • in cross pollinating plants (including dioecious plants), a specialised event called pollination facilitates transfer of pollen grains to the stigma.
  • Pollen grains germinate on the stigma and the pollen tubes carrying the male gametes reach the ovule and discharge male gametes near the egg.
  • In dioecious animals, since male and female gametes are formed in different individuals, the organism must evolve a special mechanism for gamete transfer. Successful transfer and coming together of gametes is essential for the most critical event in sexual reproduction, the fertilisation.

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  • Fertilisation
  • The most vital event of sexual reproduction is perhaps the fusion of gametes. This process is also calledsyngamyresults in the formation of a diploid
  • in some organisms like rotifers, honeybees and even some lizards and birds (turkey), the female gamete undergoes development to form new organisms without fertilisation. This phenomenon is called
  • In most aquatic organisms, such as a majority of algae and fishes as well as amphibians, syngamy occurs in the external medium (water), i.e., outside the body of the organism. This type of gametic fusion is called external fertilisation.

Organisms exhibiting external fertilisation show great synchrony between the sexes and release a large number of gametes into the surrounding medium (water) in order to enhance the chances of syngamy. This happens in the bony fishes and frogs where a large number of offspring are produced. A major disadvantage is that the offspring are extremely vulnerable to predators threatening their survival up to adulthood.

  • In many terrestrial organisms, belonging to fungi, higher animals such as reptiles birds, mammals and in a majority of plants (bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms), syngamy occurs insidethe body of the organism, hence the process is called internal fertilisation.

In all these organisms, egg is formed inside the female body where they fuse with the male gamete. In organisms exhibiting internal fertilisation, the male gamete is motile and has to reach the egg in order to fuse with it. In these even though the number of sperms produced is very large, there is a significant reduction in the number of eggs produced. In seed plants, however, the non-motile male gametes are carried to female gamete by pollen tubes.

  • Post-fertilisation Events
  • Events in sexual reproduction after the formation of zygote are called post-fertilisation events.
  • Zygote :
    • Formation of the diploid zygote is universal in all sexually reproducing organisms.
    • In organisms with external fertilisation, zygote is formed in the external medium (usually water), whereas in those exhibiting internal fertilisation, zygote is formed inside the body of the organism.
    • Further development of the zygote depends on the type of life cycle the organism has and the environment it is exposed to.
    • In organisms belonging to fungi and algae, zygote develops a thick wall that is resistant to dessication and damage. It undergoes a period of rest before germination.
    • In organisms with haplontic life cycle, zygote divides by meiosis to form haploid spores that grow into haploid individuals.
    • Zygote is the vital link that ensures continuity of species between organisms of one generation and the next.
    • Every sexually reproducing organism, including human beings begin life as a single cell-the zygote.
  • Embryogenesis :
    • It refers to the process of development ofembryo from the zygote.
    • During embryogenesis, zygote undergoes cell division (mitosis) and cell differentiation. While cell divisions increase the number of cells in the developing embryo; cell differentiation helps groups of cells to undergo certain modifications to form specialised tissues and organs to form an organism.
    • Animals are categorised into oviparous and viviparous based on whether the development of the zygote take place outside the body of the female parent or inside, i.e., whether they lay fertilised/unfertilised eggs or give birth to young ones.
    • In oviparous animals like reptiles and birds,the fertilised eggs covered by hard calcareous shell are laid in a safe place in the environment; after a period of incubation young ones hatch out.
    • in viviparous animals (majority of mammals including human beings), the zygote develops into a young one inside the body of the female organism. After attaining a certain stage of growth, the young ones are delivered out of the body of the female organism. Because of proper embryonic care and protection, the chances of survival of young ones is greater in viviparous organisms.
    • In flowering plants, the zygote is formed inside the ovule. After fertilisation the sepals, petals and stamens of the flower wither and fall off.
    • The pistil however, remains attached to the plant. The zygote develops into the embryo and the ovules develop into the seed. The ovary develops into the fruit which develops a thick wall called pericarp that is protective in function. After dispersal, seeds germinate under favourable conditions to produce new plants.1downloadble pdf file is available…please click on the link below…

CHAPTER 1 – REPRODUCTION IN ORGANISMS

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CHAPTER 10 – CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

  • Growth and reproduction are characteristics of living cells and organisms.

Cell Cycle –

  • The sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its genome, synthesizes the other constituents of the cell and eventually divides into two daughter cells is termed cell cycle.
  • Cell cycle includes three processes cell division, DNA replication and cell growth in coordinated way.
  • Duration of cell cycle can vary from organism to organism and also from cell type to cell type. (e.g., in Yeast cell cycle is of 90 minutes, in human 24 hrs.)

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Interphase

  • It is divided into 3 further phases G1, S, and G2.

G1 phase (Gap 1 Phase)

  • Corresponds to the interval between mitosis and initiation of DNA replication.
  • During G1 phase the cell is metabolically active and continuously grows but does not replicate its DNA.

S phase (synthesis phase)

  • period during which DNA synthesis or replication takes place.
  • During this time the amount of DNA per cell doubles. (only amount of DNA is doubled, no of chromosomes remain same.)
  • In animal cells, during the S phase, DNA replication begins in the nucleus, and the centriole duplicates in the cytoplasm.

G2 phase (Gap 2 Phase)

  • Proteins are synthesised in preparation for mitosis while cell growth continues.

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  • Some cells do not exhibit division like heart cells, nerve cells etc. these cells enter in an inactive phase called G0 or quiescent phase from G1 phase.
  • Cells in this phase are metabolically active but they do not divide unless they are called on to do so.

Mitosis or M phase

  • In animals, mitotic cell division is only seen in the diploid somatic cells while in the plants mitotic divisions can be seen in both haploid and diploid cells.
  • it is also called as equational division as the number of chromosomes in the parent and progeny cells are the same.
  • Mitosis is divided into the following four stages:
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase

Prophase

  • It follows the S and G2 phases of interphase.
  • The centrioles now begin to move towards opposite poles of the cell.
  • In prophase Chromosomal material condenses to form compact mitotic chromosomes.
  • Initiation of the assembly of mitotic spindle with the help of the microtubules.
  • Cell organelles like Golgi complexes, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleolus and the nuclear envelope disappear.

Metaphase

  • Start of metaphase is marked by the complete disintegration of the nuclear envelope.
  • The chromosomes are spread through the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • condensation of chromosomes is completed and they can be observed clearly under the microscope.
  • This is the stage at which morphology of chromosomes is most easily studied.
  • At this stage, metaphase chromosome is made up of two sister chromatids, which are held together by the centromere.
  • centromere serve as the sites of attachment of spindle fibres to the chromosomes.
  • chromosomes are moved into position at the centre of the cell.
  • the metaphase is characterised by all the chromosomes coming to lie at the equator with one chromatid of each chromosome connected by its kinetochore to spindle fibres from one pole and its sister chromatid connected by its kinetochore to spindle fibres from the opposite pole.
  • The plane of alignment of the chromosomes at metaphase is referred to as the metaphase plate or equatorial plate.

Anaphase

  • At the onset of anaphase, each chromosome arranged at the metaphase plate is split simultaneously and the two daughter chromatids begin to move towards the two opposite poles.
  • As each chromosome moves away from the equatorial plate, the centromere of each chromosome is towards the pole and hence at the leading edge, with the arms of the chromosome trailing behind

Telophase

  • At the beginning of telophase, the chromosomes at their respective poles decondense and form chromatin network.
  • Nuclear envelope assembles around the chromatin network.
  • Nucleolus, Golgi complex and ER etc cell organelles reform.

Cytokinesis

  • After karyokinesis the cell itself is divided into two daughter cells by a separate process called cytokinesis.
  • In an animal cell, this is achieved by the appearance of a furrow in the plasma membrane.
  • The furrow gradually deepens and ultimately joins in the centre dividing the cell cytoplasm into two.
  • Plant cells undergo cytokinesis by cell plate method. In cell plate method wall formation starts in the centre of the cell and grows outward to meet the existing lateral walls.
  • The formation of the new cell wall begins with the formation of a simple precursor, called the cell-plate that represents the middle lamella between the walls of two adjacent cells.
  • At the time of cytoplasmic division, organelles like mitochondria and plastids get distributed between the two daughter cells.
  • In some organisms karyokinesis is not followed by cytokinesis as a result of which multinucleate condition arises leading to the formation of syncytium (e.g., liquid endosperm in coconut). (should be coenocytic)

Significance of mitosis

  • Mitosis results in the production of diploid daughter cells with identical genetic complement usually.
  • The growth of multicellular organisms is due to mitosis.
  • Cell growth results in disturbing the ratio between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Therefore, cell divide to restore the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio.
  • mitosis is important in cell repair. The cells of the upper layer of the epidermis, cells of the lining of the gut, and blood cells are being constantly replaced.
  • Mitotic divisions in the meristematic tissues – the apical and the lateral cambium, result in a continuous growth of plants throughout their life.

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Meiosis

  • The specialised kind of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half results in the production of haploid daughter cells called
  • It is responsible for formation of haploid gametes, which during sexual reproduction form diploid zygote by fusion.
  • Meiosis involves two sequential cycles of nuclear and cell division called meiosis I and meiosis II but only a single cycle of DNA replication.
  • Interphase of meiosis is similar to interphase of mitosis.

 

Meiosis I

Prophase I

  • Prophase of the meiosis I division is typically longer and more complex than prophase of mitosis.
  • It has been further subdivided into the following five phases based on chromosomal behavior.

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 Metaphase I:

  • The bivalent chromosomes align on the equatorial plate.
  • The microtubules from the opposite poles of the spindle attach to the pair of homologous chromosomes.

Anaphase I:

  • The homologous chromosomes separate, while sister chromatids remain associated at their centromeres.

Telophase I

  • The nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear.
  • cytokinesis follows telophase I.
  • Although in many cases the chromosomes do undergo some dispersion, they do not reach the extremely extended state of the interphase nucleus. The stage between the two meiotic divisions is called interkinesis and is generally short lived.
  • Interkinesis is followed by prophase II, a much simpler prophase than prophase I.

 

Meiosis II

Meiosis II resembles a normal mitosis.

Prophase II:

  • Meiosis II is initiated immediately after cytokinesis.
  • The nuclear membrane disappears by the end of prophase II.
  • The chromosomes again become compact.

Metaphase II:

  • At this stage the chromosomes align at the equator and the microtubules from opposite poles of the spindle get attached to the kinetochores of sister chromatids.

Anaphase II:

  • splitting of the centromere of each chromosome.
  • Chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell.

Telophase II:

  • the two groups of chromosomes once again get enclosed by a nuclear envelope.
  • cytokinesis follows resulting in the formation of four haploid daughter cells).

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SIGNIFICANCE OF MEIOSIS

  • by meiosis conservation of specific chromosome number of each species is achieved across generations in sexually reproducing organisms.
  • It also increases the genetic variability in the population of organisms from one generation to the next. Variations are very important for the process of evolution.

 

 

PRINTABLE Pdf file of chapter notes are available…please click on the link…

CHAPTER 10 – CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

 

Judgement day : What to do and How to approach the paper..(a complete guide by successful students)

Compose yourself. It’s the day you have worked for.

if you don’t see yourself as a winner, then you won’t perform as a winner”

Anxiety on the exam day is inevitable, but you must not let the anxiety to cloud your mind. Promise yourself that you will stay calm and give your best because you know once you give your best nothing can stop you from getting what you deserve.

You have read well, practiced hard, did all that was needed. Now its show time so here are some tips that will help you in performing better.

  1. Make sure you had a good sleep- a good 6-7 hrs. sleep will relax your mind and increase your efficiency. Don’t stay up till late in night.

 

  1. Eat light- don’t skip the breakfast and try to keep it light as many people feel nauseated before exams due to anxiety and apprehension.

 

  1. Gather your essentials- ensure you have checked all essentials like your admit card, Id proof and whatever else you require foe exams before leaving for the exam to avoid any hassle.

 

  1. Reach your Centre well in time- avoid any rush or hurry and reach your exam centre well on time. Find yourself a quiet place and avoid the gangs voicing their fears and discussing questions.

 

  1. Don’t carry loads of books to exam centre- you don’t want to stress out your mind few hours before exam. So relax, you have read everything before. Don’t start flipping pages of all the books. Either sit relaxed or you may just go through one liners, diagrams and high yield points you have prepared for exams. (follow whichever suits you). Don’t read long paragraphs, it will stress you out. Close all the books atleast 15 minutes before entering the exam hall.

 

  1. Don’t panic seeing the paper- find your seat in the exam hall and make yourself comfortable. 15mins before the exam you will handed the OMR. Very carefully fill in all details like name, roll number. 5 minutes before the exam you will be handed the question paper. When asked open it and don’t panic seeing the paper even if you don’t know the first few questions you saw. Its ok you will figure it out.

 

  1. Attempt your paper in rounds- In the first round attempt the questions you are absolutely sure about, no guess work. Don’t waste time on questions you are facing difficulty with in first round. Don’t attempt physics first as it may consume lot of time which will panic you. It is best to attempt biology first which comprises 50% of the paper and can be completed in less than 45 minutes. It will make you feel good and confident once you complete 50% of the paper and lot of time remaining. Leave the questions that require lengthy calculations or are confusing for second round. once you are done with first round you would have completed most of the ques.

In the second round deal with remaining questions. Think over them, rule out options that can’t be answer, calculate the numericals carefully and chose your answer.

 

  1. Be calculative- before sitting for any exam, you must have an idea about previous years’ cutoff. For an outstanding rank you must be calculative of the risk you must take.
  • Play safe only if you think you attempted fairly above the last years’ cutoff in the first round itself.
  • If you think you attempted just around cutoff in first round then you must make some smart guesses and choose your answers intelligently. Never make blind guesses.
  • If you think you attempted below cutoff score then you must take some risk because it’s do or die.Try ruling out the options to find the most probable answer. You must attempt fair enough questions to get a good rank because no one has 100% accuracy. So attempt sufficiently according to marking scheme and difficulty level of paper.

 

  1. Mind the time- divide your time for each subject in the paper and be aware of the time left with you because you don’t want any silly mistakes and errors in filling OMR that usually happens out of desperation to finish the exam on time. fill in the OMR simultaneously and not at last as will cause errors. Also ensure that no questions go unread, so, manage your time accordingly.

 

  1. Take your time don’t let blunders happen-read ques very carefully and don’t rush to giving answers. Take your time, think well and then mark the answers carefully. Pay attention on words like- not, except, all of these in the questions and options.

 

It’s time to shine. All the very best for the exams.

by –

Biologyaipmt team

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Last Month Tips To Give Your Preparations a Cutting Edge- By Dr. Aparna Tripathi (AIPG 2016 AIR-16)

Yes, its APRIL! Time to put in your best effort and harvest the success.

With the calendar page turned to April and just a month remaining for the AIPMT, I believe it would have surely got the heart rates soaring. The anxiety levels would be high, but remember cracking AIPMT is a game of nerves. One must learn to be calm and focused in this crucial last month of preparation to book your seat in your dream college.

Entrance exams apart from evaluating the knowledge of aspirants also tests their analytical skills and logical thinking capability. Hence, one must study smart and most importantly be aware of what to do and what not to.

Here’s a smart plan to Fast-track your revision plan in the last month and to achieve maximum efficiency.

  1. Categorize your course: firstly, divide whatever you have read till now in 2 categories:
    1. I know it well
    2. I always forget this

For the first category since you know these topics well you just need to revise them once very quickly without wasting time on these topics.

For the second category since you always tend to forget these topics or you find it difficult, these topics must keep passing before your eyes everyday. So mark these topics in your book and make sure to revise them repeatedly.

  1. Divide your day: divide your day into 2 parts. One for revising your 3 subjects- biology, physics and chemistry, the other part for solving previous exam papers. Make a habit of solving one paper everyday in 3 hrs. duration just like you are supposed to do on the exam day.
  1. No study is complete without self-evaluation: keep a check on your performance by giving regular tests and evaluating your performance. After giving every test make sure to analyze the areas you need to improve and in which questions you go wrong. Read those topics well, clear your doubts and don’t repeat those mistakes.
  1. Revise the diagrams in NCERT extremely well: diagrams in NCERT biology textbooks are asked in exam as it is in AIPMT. Make sure you go through these well enough.
  1. Eat healthy, sleep well, think better: It is most important to stay healthy so have good and nutritious food. take a good sleep of atleast 6hrs daily. Take small breaks of 10 minutes to relax your mind and eyes after every 3 hrs. of studying.  Stay away from negative people and negative thoughts. Refrain from social media till your exams.
  1. Believe in your abilities and hard work: your hard work will pay dividends. Don’t let anything demoralize you. Believe that you will do it as you have worked for it. trust your strengths and have faith.

Your dream seat in prestigious medical colleges in the country awaits you. All the very best to all the aspirants.

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