AIPMT 2015 COUNSELLING – FINAL ALLOTMENT LIST

Congratulations all for your performance in NEET-2016..

Now when ranks are out you must be wondering whether you will get your desired college or not.

For this check last year allotment list for 15% all india quota. It will give you a rough idea of your chances of getting a particular college.

Click on the following link to download last year allotment file..

AIPMT2015-ROUND-III-ALLOTMENT

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CHAPTER 7: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

CHAPTER 7

STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

  • A group of similar cells of common origin along with intercellular substances performing a specific function is known as tissue.
  • Animal tissues are broadly classified into four types: (i) Epithelial, (ii) Connective, (iii) Muscular and (iv) Neural.

 

Tissue Origin Function
Epithelial Ecto, meso, endodermal Protection, absorption, secretion etc.
Connective Mesodermal To connect, support, transport etc
Muscular Mesodermal Locomotion and movement
Nervous Ectodermal Control and coordination

 

Epithelial Tissue

This tissue has a free surface, which faces either a body fluid or the outside environment and thus provides a covering or a lining for some part of the body.

The cells are compactly packed with little intercellular matrix.

There are two types of epithelial tissues namely simple epithelium and compound epithelium. Simple epithelium –

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Connective Tissue

Connective tissues are most abundant and widely distributed in the body of complex animals.

They are named connective tissues because of their special function of linking and supporting other tissues/organs of the body.

In all connective tissues except blood, the cells secrete fibres of structural proteins called collagen or elastin which provide strength, elasticity and flexibility to the tissue.

These cells also secrete modified polysaccharides, which accumulate between cells and fibres and act as matrix (ground substance).

Connective tissues are classified into three types: (i) Loose connective tissue, (ii) Dense connective tissue and (iii) Specialised connective tissue.

 

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Muscle Tissue

  • Each muscle is made of many long, cylindrical fibres arranged in parallel arrays. These fibres are composed of numerous fine fibrils, called myofibrils.
  • Muscle fibres contract (shorten) in response to stimulation, then relax (lengthen) and return to their uncontracted state in a coordinated fashion.
  • Their action moves the body to adjust to the changes in the environment and to maintain the positions of the various parts of the body.
  • In general, muscles play an active role in all the movements of the body.
  • Muscles are of three types, skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.

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 Neural Tissue

  • Neural tissue consists of neuron and neuroglial cells.
  • Neural tissue exerts the greatest control over the body’s responsiveness to changing conditions.
  • Neuron, an excitable cell is the unit of neural system.
  • The neuroglial cells which constitute the rest of the neural system protect and support neurons.
  • Neuroglia make up more than one half the volume of neural tissue in our body.
  • When a neuron is suitably stimulated, an electrical disturbance is generated which swiftly travels along its plasma membrane.
  • Arrival of the disturbance at the neuron’s endings, or output zone, triggers events that may cause stimulation or inhibition of adjacent neurons and other cells

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 ORGAN AND ORGAN SYSTEM

  • Tissues organise to form organs which in turn associate to form organ systems in the multicellular organisms, this results in more efficient and coordinated system of cells.
  • Each organ is made of one or more type of tissues.
  • Complexity in organ and organ systems displays certain evolutionary trend.

 

EARTHWORM

Habits and habitat –

  • Earthworm is a reddish brown terrestrial invertebrate that inhabits the upper layer of the moist soil.
  • During day time, they live in burrows made by boring and swallowing the soil. In the gardens, they can be traced by their faecal deposits known as worm castings.
  • The common Indian earthworms are Pheretima and

Morphology

  • Long cylindrical body.
  • Body is divided into many short segments which are similar (metameres about 100-120).
  • Body surfaces –

    • The dorsal surface of the body is marked by a dark median mid dorsal line (dorsal blood vessel) along the longitudinal axis of the body.
    • The ventral surface is distinguished by the presence of genital openings (pores).
    • Anterior end consists of the mouth and the prostomium, a lobe which serves as a covering for the mouth and as a wedge to force open cracks in the soil into which the earthworm may crawl. The prostomium is sensory in function.
  • Segments and their related structures –

    • The first body segment is called the peristomium (buccal segment) which contains the mouth.
    • In a mature worm, 14th, 15th, 16th segments are covered by a prominent dark band of glandular tissue called clitellum. Thus the body is divisible into three prominent regions – preclitellar, clitellar and postclitellar segments.
    • Four pairs of spermathecal apertures are situated on the ventro-lateral sides of the intersegmental grooves, i.e., 5th -9th
    • A single female genital pore is present in the mid-ventral line of 14th
    • A pair of male genital pores are present on the ventro-lateral sides of the 18th
    • Numerous minute pores called nephridiopores open on the surface of the body.
    • In each body segment, except the first, last and clitellum, there are rows of S-shaped setae, embedded in the epidermal pits in the middle of each segment. Setae can be extended or retracted. Their principal role is in locomotion.

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 Anatomy

Body Wall

  • Layers are outermost thin non-cellular cuticle, epidermis, two muscle layers (circular and longitudinal) and an innermost coelomic epithelium
  • The epidermis is made up of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells which contain secretory gland cells.

Alimentary canal

  • It is a straight tube and runs between first to last segment of the body.
  • It consists of a terminal mouth, buccal cavity (1-3 segments), muscular pharynx, oesophagus (5-7 segments), muscular gizzard (8-9 segments), stomach (9-14 segments), intestine (15th to last segment), anus.
  • Gizzard helps in grinding the soil particles and decaying leaves.
  • Calciferous glands, present in the stomach, neutralise the humic acid present in humus.
  • A pair of short and conical intestinal caecae project from the intestine on the 26th segment.
  • In intestine between 26-35 segments, an internal median fold of dorsal wall called typhlosole is present. It increases the effective area of absorption in the intestine.

Circulatory system

  • Pheretima exhibits a closed type of blood vascular system, consisting of blood vessels, capillaries and heart.
  • Blood is confined to the heart and blood vessels. Contractions keep blood circulating in one direction. Smaller blood vessels supply the gut, nerve cord, and the body wall.
  • Blood glands are present on the 4th, 5th and 6th segments. They produce blood cells and haemoglobin which is dissolved in blood plasma.
  • Blood cells are phagocytic in nature.

Respiratory system

  • Earthworms lack specialised breathing devices.
  • Respiratory exchange occurs through moist body surface into their blood stream.

Excretory system

  • The excretory organs occur as segmentally arranged coiled tubules called nephridia.
  • They are of three types (similar in structure) :
    1. septal nephridia – Present on both the sides of intersegmental septa of segment 15 to the last that open into intestine.
    2. integumentary nephridia – attached to lining of the body wall of segment 3 to the last that open on the body surface
    3. pharyngeal nephridia – Present as three paired tufts in the 4th, 5th and 6th segments.
  • Nephridia regulate the volume and composition of the body fluids. (osmotic regulation).
  • A nephridium starts out as a funnel that collects excess fluid from coelomic chamber. The funnel connects with a tubular part of the nephridium which delivers the wastes through a pore to the surface in the body wall into the digestive tube.

Nervous system

  • It is basically represented by ganglia arranged segmentwise on the ventral paired nerve cord.
  • The nerve cord in the anterior region (3rd and 4th segments) bifurcates, laterally encircling the pharynx and joins the cerebral ganglia dorsally to form a nerve ring.
  • The cerebral ganglia alongwith other nerves in the ring integrate sensory input as well as command muscular responses of the body.

Sense organs

  • eyes are absent but does possess light and touch sensitive organs.
  • Worms have specialised chemoreceptors (taste receptors) which react to chemical stimuli.
  • These sense organs are located on the anterior part of the worm.

Reproductive system

  • Earthworm is hermaphrodite (bisexual), i.e., testes and ovaries are present in the same individual.
  • Male –
    • two pairs of testes (10th, 11th segments).
    • Their vasa deferentia run up to the 18th segment where they join the prostatic duct.
    • Two pairs of accessory glands are present (in the 17th, 19th segments).
    • The common prostrate and spermatic duct (vary differential) opens to the exterior by a pair of male genital pores on the ventro-lateral side of the 18th
  • Female –
    • Four pairs of spermathecae are located in 6th-9th segments (one pair in each segment). They receive and store spermatozoa during copulation.
    • One pair of ovaries is attached at the inter-segmental septum of the 12th and 13th
    • Ovarian funnels are present beneath the ovaries which continue into oviduct, join together and open on the ventral side as a single median female genital pore on the 14th segment.
  • Fertilization –
    • It is a protandrous animal with crossfertilisation.
    • A mutual exchange of sperm occurs between two worms during mating. One worm has to find another worm and they mate juxtaposing opposite gonadal openings exchanging packets of sperms called spermatophores.
    • Mature sperm and egg cells and nutritive fluid are deposited in cocoons produced by the gland cells of clitellum.
    • Fertilisation and development occur within the cocoons which are deposited in soil.
    • The ova (eggs) are fertilised by the sperm cells within the cocoon which then slips off the worm and is deposited in or on the soil.
    • The cocoon holds the worm embryos.
    • After about 3 weeks, each cocoon produces two to twenty baby worms with an average of four.
    • Earthworms development is direct, i.e., there is no larva formed.

Economical uses –

  • Earthworms are known as ‘friends of farmers’ because they make burrows in the soil and make it porous which helps in respiration and penetration of the developing plant roots. The process of increasing fertility of soil by the earthworms is called vermicomposting.
  • They are also used as bait in game fishing.

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 COCKROACH

  • Brown or black bodied animals.
  • Included in class Insecta of Phylum Arthropoda.
  • Bright yellow, red and green coloured cockroaches have also been reported in tropical regions.
  • Size ranges from ¼ inches to 3 inches (0.6-7.6 cm) and have long antenna, legs and flat extension of the upper body wall that conceals head.
  • Nocturnal, Omnivores that live in damp places throughout the world.
  • They have become residents of human homes and thus are serious pests and vectors of several diseases.

Morphology

  • Scientific name of the common species of cockroach, Periplaneta Americana.
  • They are about 34-53 mm long with wings that extend beyond the tip of the abdomen in males.
  • The body of the cockroach is segmented and divisible into three distinct regions – head, thorax and abdomen.
  • The entire body is covered by a hard chitinous exoskeleton (brown in colour).
  • In each segment, exoskeleton has hardened plates called sclerites (tergites dorsally and sternites ventrally) that are joined to each other by a thin and flexible articular membrane (arthrodial membrane).
  • Head –

    • Head is triangular in shape and lies anteriorly at right angles to the longitudinal body axis.
    • It is formed by the fusion of six segments and shows great mobility in all directions due to flexible neck.
    • The head capsule bears a pair of compound eyes, a pair of thread like antennae which arise from membranous sockets lying in front of eyes. Antennae have sensory receptors that help in monitoring the environment.
    • At anterior end of the head, appendages forming biting and chewing type of mouth parts are present. The mouthparts consisting of a labrum (upper lip), a pair of mandibles, a pair of maxillae and a labium (lower lip).
    • A median flexible lobe, acting as tongue (hypopharynx), lies within the cavity enclosed by the mouthparts
  • Thorax –

    • It consists of three parts – prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax.
    • The head is connected with thorax by a short extension of the prothorax known as the neck.
    • Each thoracic segment bears a pair of walking legs.
    • The first pair of wings arises from mesothorax and the second pair from metathorax. Forewings (mesothoracic) called tegmina are opaque dark and leathery and cover the hind wings when at rest. The hind wings are transparent, membranous and are used in flight.
  • Abdomen –

    • The abdomen in both males and females consists of 10 segments.
    • In females, the 7th sternum is boat shaped and together with the 8th and 9th sterna form a brood or genital pouch whose anterior part contains female gonopore, spermathecal pores and collateral glands.
    • In males, genital pouch or chamber lies at the hind end of abdomen bounded dorsally by 9th and 10th terga and ventrally by the 9th It contains dorsal anus, ventral male genital pore and gonapophysis.
    • Males bear a pair of short, threadlike anal styles which are absent in females.
    • In both sexes, the 10th segment bears a pair of jointed filamentous structures called anal cerci.

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 Anatomy

  • Digestive system –

    • The alimentary canal is divided into three regions: foregut, midgut and hindgut.
    • Fore gut –
      • Consist of mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop, gizzard (Proventriculus).
      • Crop is sac like structure for storing of food.
      • Gizzard has an outer layer of thick circular muscles and thick inner cuticle forming six highly chitinous plate called teeth. Gizzard helps in grinding the food particles.
      • The entire foregut is lined by cuticle.
    • Mid gut –
      • A ring of 6-8 blind tubules called hepatic or gastric caecae is present at the junction of foregut and midgut, which secrete digestive juice.
    • Hind gut –
      • At the junction of midgut and hindgut 100-150 yellow coloured thin filamentous Malphigian tubules are present. They help in removal of excretory products from haemolymph.
      • The hindgut is broader than midgut and is differentiated into ileum, colon and rectum.
      • The rectum opens out through anus.
  • Blood vascular system –
    • Open type circulatory system.
    • Blood vessels are poorly developed and open into space (haemocoel).
    • Visceral organs located in the haemocoel are bathed in blood (haemolymph).
    • The haemolymph is composed of colourless plasma and haemocytes.
    • Heart of cockroach consists of elongated muscular tube lying along mid dorsal line of thorax and abdomen.
    • It is differentiated into funnel shaped chambers with ostia on either side.
    • Blood from sinuses enter heart through ostia and is pumped anteriorly to sinuses again.
  • Respiratory system –
    • consists of a network of trachea, that open through 10 pairs of small holes called spiracles present on the lateral side of the body.
    • Thin branching tubes (tracheal tubes subdivided into tracheoles) carry oxygen from the air to all the parts.
    • The opening of the spiracles is regulated by the sphincters.
    • Exchange of gases take place at the tracheoles by diffusion.
  • Excretory system –
    • Excretion is performed by Malpighian tubules.
    • Each tubule is lined by glandular and ciliated cells.
    • They absorb nitrogenous waste products and convert them into uric acid which is excreted out through the hindgut. Therefore, this insect is called uricotelic.
    • In addition, the fat body, nephrocytes and urecose glands also help in excretion.
  • Nervous system –
    • It consists of a series of fused, segmentally arranged ganglia joined by paired longitudinal connectives on the ventral side. Three ganglia lie in the thorax, and six in the abdomen.
    • The nervous system of cockroach is spread throughout the body.
    • The head holds a bit of a nervous system while the rest is situated along the ventral (belly-side) part of its body. So, if the head of a cockroach is cut off, it will still live for as long as one week.
    • In the head region, the brain is represented by supra-oesophageal ganglion which supplies nerves to antennae and compound eyes.
  • Sense organs –
    • In cockroach, the sense organs are antennae, eyes, maxillary palps, labial palps, anal cerci, etc.
    • The compound eyes are situated at the dorsal surface of the head. Each eye consists of about 2000 hexagonal ommatidia. With the help of several ommatidia, a cockroach can receive several images of an object. This kind of vision is known as mosaic vision with more sensitivity but less resolution, being common during night (hence called nocturnal vision).
  • Reproductive system –
    • Cockroaches are dioecious and both sexes have well developed reproductive organs.
    • Male reproductive system –
      • It consists of a pair of testes (in the 4th -6th abdominal segments), vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle.
      • The ejaculatory duct opens into male gonopore situated ventral to anus.
      • A characteristic mushroom shaped gland is present in the 6th-7th abdominal segments which functions as an accessory reproductive gland.
      • The external genitalia are represented by male gonapophysis or phallomere (chitinous asymmetrical structures, surrounding the male gonopore).
      • The sperms are stored in the seminal vesicles and are glued together in the form of bundles called spermatophores which are discharged during copulation.
    • Female reproductive system –
      • It consists of two large ovaries (2nd – 6th abdominal segments), oviducts, vagina, genital chamber, spermathecal.
      • Each ovary is formed of a group of eight ovarian tubules or ovarioles, containing a chain of developing ova.
      • A pair of spermatheca is present in the 6th segment which opens into the genital chamber.
      • Sperms are transferred through spermatophores.
    • Fertilization and development –
      • Fertilization internal.
      • Fertilized eggs are encased in capsules called oothecae. Ootheca is a dark reddish to blackish brown capsule, about 3/8″ (8 mm) long.
      • They are dropped or glued to a suitable surface, usually in a crack or crevice of high relative humidity near a food source.
      • On an average, females produce 9-10 oothecae, each containing 14-16 eggs.
      • The development of americana is paurometabolous, meaning there is development through nymphal stage. The nymphs look very much like adults. The nymph grows by moulting about 13 times to reach the adult form.
      • The next to last nymphal stage has wing pads but only adult cockroaches have wings.

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FROGS

Habits and habitat

  • Frogs can live both on land and in freshwater and belong to class Amphibia of phylum Chordata.
  • Most common species of frog found in India is Rana tigrina.
  • They do not have constant body temperature i.e.; their body temperature varies with the temperature of the environment. Such animals are called cold blooded or poikilotherms.
  • They have the ability to change the colour to hide them from their enemies (camouflage). This protective coloration is called mimicry.
  • They take shelter in deep burrows to protect them from extreme heat and cold. This is called as summer sleep (aestivation) and winter sleep (hibernation).

Morphology

  • The skin is smooth and slippery due to the presence of mucus. The skin is always maintained in a moist condition.
  • The colour of dorsal side of body is generally olive green with dark irregular spots. On the ventral side the skin is uniformly pale yellow.
  • The frog never drinks water but absorb it through the skin.
  • Body of a frog is divisible into head and trunk. A neck and tail are absent.
  • Above the mouth, a pair of nostrils is present.
  • Eyes are bulged and covered by a nictitating membrane that protects them while in water.
  • On either side of eyes, a membranous tympanum (ear) receives sound signals.
  • The forelimbs and hind limbs help in swimming, walking, leaping and burrowing. The hind limbs end in five digits and they are larger and muscular than fore limbs that end in four digits.
  • Feet have webbed digits that help in swimming.
  • Frogs exhibit sexual dimorphism. Male frogs can be distinguished by the presence of sound producing vocal sacs and also a copulatory pad on the first digit of the fore limbs which are absent in female frogs.

Anatomy

  • Digestive System –

    • It consists of alimentary canal and digestive glands.
    • The alimentary canal is short because frogs are carnivores and hence the length of intestine is reduced.
    • Alimentary canal consists of mouth, buccal cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, intestine, rectum and cloaca.
    • Food is captured by the bilobed tongue.
    • Digestion of food takes place by the action of HCl and gastric juices secreted from the walls of the stomach.
    • Partially digested food called chyme is passed from stomach to the first part of the intestine, the duodenum.
    • Liver secretes bile that is stored in the gall bladder.
    • Pancreas produces pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes.
    • The duodenum receives bile from gall bladder and pancreatic juices from the pancreas through a common bile duct.
    • Bile emulsifies fat and pancreatic juices digest carbohydrates and proteins.
    • Final digestion takes place in the intestine.
    • Digested food is absorbed by the numerous finger-like folds in the inner wall of intestine called villi and microvilli.
    • The undigested solid waste moves into the rectum and passes out through cloaca.
  • Respiratory system –

    • Frogs respire on land and in the water by two different methods.
    • In water, skin acts as aquatic respiratory organ (cutaneous respiration). Dissolved oxygen in the water is exchanged through the skin by diffusion.
    • On land, the buccal cavity, skin and lungs act as the respiratory organs.
    • The respiration by lungs is called pulmonary respiration. The lungs are a pair of elongated, pink coloured sac-like structures present in the upper part of the trunk region (thorax). Air enters through the nostrils into the buccal cavity and then to lungs.
    • During aestivation and hibernation gaseous exchange takes place through skin.
  • Circulatory system –

    • The vascular system of frog is well-developed closed type.
    • Frogs have a lymphatic system also.
    • The blood vascular system involves heart, blood vessels and blood.
    • The lymphatic system consists of lymph, lymph channels and lymph nodes.
    • Heart is a muscular structure situated in the upper part of the body cavity.
    • It has three chambers, two atria and one ventricle and is covered by a membrane called pericardium.
    • A triangular structure called sinus venosus joins the right atrium. It receives blood through the major veins called vena cava.
    • The ventricle opens into a saclike conus arteriosus on the ventral side of the heart.
    • The blood from the heart is carried to all parts of the body by the arteries (arterial system).
    • The veins collect blood from different parts of body to the heart and form the venous system.
    • Special venous connection between liver and intestine as well as the kidney and lower parts of the body are present in frogs. The former is called hepatic portal system and the latter is called renal portal system.
    • The blood is composed of plasma and cells.
    • The blood cells are RBC (red blood cells) or erythrocytes, WBC (white blood cells) or leucocytes and platelets.
    • RBC’s are nucleated and contain red coloured pigment namely haemoglobin.
    • The lymph is different from blood.
    • It lacks few proteins and RBCs.
    • The blood carries nutrients, gases and water to the respective sites during the circulation.
    • The circulation of blood is achieved by the pumping action of the muscular heart.
  • Excretory system –

    • The elimination of nitrogenous wastes is carried out by a well-developed excretory system.
    • The excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, ureters, cloaca and urinary bladder.
    • Kidneys are compact, dark red and bean like structures situated a little posteriorly in the body cavity on both sides of vertebral column.
    • Each kidney is composed of several structural and functional units called uriniferous tubules or nephrons.
    • Two ureters emerge from the kidneys in the male frogs. The ureters act as urinogenital duct which opens into the cloaca.
    • In females the ureters and oviduct open seperately in the cloaca.
    • The thin-walled urinary bladder is present ventral to the rectum which also opens in the cloaca.
    • The frog excretes urea and thus is a ureotelic
    • Excretory wastes are carried by blood into the kidney where it is separated and excreted.
  • Endocrine system-

    • The chemical coordination of various organs of the body is achieved by hormones which are secreted by the endocrine glands.
    • The prominent endocrine glands found in frog are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pineal body, pancreatic islets, adrenals and gonads.
  • Nervous system –

    • The nervous system is organised into a central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), a peripheral nervous system (cranial and spinal nerves) and an autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic).
    • There are ten pairs of cranial nerves arising from the brain.
    • Brain is enclosed in a bony structure called brain box (cranium).
    • The brain is divided into fore-brain, mid-brain and hind-brain.
    • Forebrain includes olfactory lobes, paired cerebral hemispheres and unpaired diencephalon.
    • The midbrain is characterised by a pair of optic lobes.
    • Hind-brain consists of cerebellum and medulla oblongata.
    • The medulla oblongata passes out through the foramen magnum and continues into spinal cord, which is enclosed in the vertebral column.
  • Sense organs –

    • Frog has different types of sense organs, namely organs of touch (sensory papillae), taste (taste buds), smell (nasal epithelium), vision (eyes) and hearing (tympanum with internal ears).
    • Eyes and internal ears are well-organised structures and the rest are cellular aggregations around nerve endings.
    • Eyes in a frog are a pair of spherical structures situated in the orbit in skull. These are simple eyes (possessing only one unit).
    • External ear is absent in frogs and only tympanum can be seen externally. The ear is an organ of hearing as well as balancing (equilibrium).
  • Reproductive system –

    • Frogs have well organised male and female reproductive systems.
    • Male reproductive system –
      • It consists of a pair of yellowish ovoid testes, which are found adhered to the upper part of kidneys by a double fold of peritoneum called mesorchium.
      • Vasa efferentia are 10-12 in number that arise from testes.
      • They enter the kidneys on their side and open into Bidder’s canal.
      • Finally, it communicates with the urinogenital duct that comes out of the kidneys and opens into the cloaca.
      • The cloaca is a small, median chamber that is used to pass faecal matter, urine and sperms to the exterior.
    • Female reproductive system –
      • It includes a pair of ovaries. The ovaries are situated near kidneys and there is no functional connection with kidneys.
      • A pair of oviduct arising from the ovaries opens into the cloaca separately.
      • A mature female can lay 2500 to 3000 ova at a time.
    • Fertilisation and development –
      • Fertilization is external and takes place in water.
      • Development involves a larval stage called tadpole.
      • Tadpole undergoes metamorphosis to form the adult.

Economic importance –

  • Frogs are beneficial for mankind because they eat insects and protect the crop.
  • Frogs maintain ecological balance because these serve as an important link of food chain and food web in the ecosystem.
  • In some countries the muscular legs of frog are used as food by man.

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printable pdf file of notes is available.. for download please click on following link

CHAPTER 7: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS

Well! It’s not the time to panic – A complete guide regarding NEET 2016

Well! It’s not the time to panic

A complete guide regarding NEET 2016

Honorable Supreme court of India in its judgement has made NEET (national eligibility entrance test) compulsory for admission in all medical, dental colleges in India.

Although this move may seem sudden but it’s not a time to panic because pattern of exam will be same and it’s a common decision for everyone and no one had an idea of it.

What are the important changes

NEET phase – I on 1st May (for those who filled the form for AIPMT)

NEET phase – II  on 24th July (for those who applied only for state entrances not for Aipmt)

Details regarding NEET phase –II will be out after 1 week. (on or After 7th May)

All other exams for admission in private medical colleges and for state quota in Govt colleges are scrapped.

Syllabus – not officially announced but it should be same as Aipmt.

Exam pattern – not announced officially but again should be same as AIPMT [Total 180 Qs = 45(P)+45(C)+90(B); +4, -1 marking scheme]

Result date – 17th august

Counselling and admission – All procedures regarding counselling and admission should finish by 1st Sept.

What should Students Do?

  • Students who are appearing in 1st may Exam shouldn’t distract. Just revise whatever you have learned and NCERT. Also focus on Diagrams of NCERT. Don’t think about this ruckus, just give your best.
  • Student who didn’t Apply for AIPMT – you also shouldn’t worry and should start reading NCERT from today itself. Try to solve previous papers of AIPMT and AIIMS (2007-2015). You need not to worry about syllabus and all because your board syllabus is quite similar to CBSE syllabus and you won’t face much problem reading NCERT. Don’t go for many books.

Students should also read our previous articles on how to prepare for AIPMT (= NEET) in last month.

https://biologyaipmt.wordpress.com/2016/04/04/last-month-tips-to-give-your-preparations-a-cutting-edge-by-dr-aparna-tripathi-aipg-2016-air-16/

we will keep you updated on further developments. So, be in touch and also like our Fb page

https://www.facebook.com/biologyaipmt/

please post all your queries and doubts in comments section and contacts us on given number.

All the best for exam!!! Believe in yourself…

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CHAPTER 6 – ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

CHAPTER 6

ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

  • Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy.
  • Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure.
  • Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments.

THE TISSUES

A tissue is a group of cells having a common origin and usually performing a common function.

Classification of tissues –

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Meristematic Tissues

  • This tissue is responsible for active cell division which results in Growth in plants.
  • Based on location and origin, Plants have different kinds of meristems.
  • Apical meristem –

The meristems which occur at the tips of roots and shoots and produce primary tissues.e.g., root and shoot apical meristem.

During the formation of leaves and elongation of stem, some cells ‘left behind’ from shoot apical meristem, constitute the axillary bud. Such buds are present in the axils of leaves and are capable of forming a branch or a flower.

  • Intercalary meristem –

The meristem which occurs between mature tissues is known as intercalary meristem.

They occur in grasses and regenerate parts removed by the grazing herbivores.

Both apical meristems and intercalary meristems are primary meristems because they appear early in life of a plant and contribute to the formation of the primary plant body.

  • Lateral meristem –

The meristem that occurs in the mature regions of roots and shoots of many plants, particularly those that produce woody axis and appear later than primary meristem is called the secondary or lateral meristem.

Fascicular vascular cambium, interfascicular cambium and cork-cambium are examples of lateral meristems. These are responsible for producing the secondary tissues.

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Permanent Tissues

  • The cells of the permanent tissues do not generallydivide further.
  • Permanent tissues having all cellssimilar in structure and function are called simpletissues. Permanent tissues having many differenttypes of cells are called complex tissues.

 Simple Tissues

Parenchyma –

  • It forms the majorcomponent within organs.
  • The cells of theparenchyma are generally isodiametric.
  • Their walls are thin and madeup of cellulose.
  • They may either be closely packedor have small intercellular spaces.
  • Theparenchyma performs various functions likephotosynthesis, storage, secretion.

Collenchyma –

  • It is present in layers below theepidermis (hypodermis) in dicotyledonous plants.
  • It is foundeither as a homogeneous layer or in patches.
  • Itconsists of cells which are much thickened at thecorners due to a deposition of cellulose,hemicellulose and pectin.
  • Collenchymatous cellsmay be oval, spherical or polygonal and oftencontain chloroplasts.
  • Intercellularspaces are absent.
  • They provide mechanicalsupport to the growing parts of the plant such asyoung stem and petiole of a leaf.

Sclerenchyma –

  • It consists of long, narrow cellswith thick and lignified cell walls having a few ornumerous pits.
  • They are usually dead and withoutprotoplasts.
  • It provides mechanical support to organs.
  • On the basis of variation in form,structure, origin and development, sclerenchymamay be either fibres or sclereids.
  • Fibers– these arethick-walled, elongated and pointed cells,generally occuring in groups, in various parts ofthe plant.
  • Sclereids – theseare spherical, oval orcylindrical, highly thickened dead cells with very narrow cavities (lumen). These are commonly found in the fruit walls of nuts; pulp of fruits like guava, pear and sapota; seed coats of legumes and leaves of tea.

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 Complex Tissues

Xylem –

  • Xylem functions as a conducting tissue for water and minerals from roots to the stem and leaves.
  • It also provides mechanical strength to the plant parts.
  • It is composed of four different kinds of elements, namely, tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.
  • Tracheids –
    • Tracheids are elongated or tube like cells with thick and lignified walls and tapering ends.
    • These are dead and are without protoplasm.
    • The inner layers of the cell walls have thickenings which vary in form.
    • In flowering plants, tracheids and vessels are the main water transporting elements.
  • Vessels –
    • Vessel is a long cylindrical tube-like structure made up of many cells called vessel members, each with lignified walls and a large central cavity.
    • The vessel cells are also devoid of protoplasm.
    • Vessel members are interconnected through perforations in their common walls.
    • Gymnosperms lack vessels intheir xylem. The presence of vessels is a characteristic featureof angiosperms.
  • Xylem fibres –
    • They have highly thickened walls and obliterated central lumens.
    • These may either be septate or aseptate.
  • Xylem parenchyma –
    • Cells are living and thin-walled,and their cell walls are made up of cellulose.
    • They store food materials in the form of starch or fat, and other substances like tannins.
    • The radial conduction of water takes place by the ray parenchymatous cells.

 

  • Primary xylem is of two types – protoxylem and metaxylem. The first formed primary xylem elements are called protoxylem and the later formed primary xylem is called metaxylem.
  1. Endarch –Instems, the protoxylem lies towards the centre (pith) and themetaxylem lies towards the periphery of the organ. This typeof primary xylem is called endarch.
  2. Exarch –In roots, the protoxylemlies towards periphery and metaxylem lies towards the centre.Such arrangement of primary xylem is called exarch.

Phloem –

  • It transports food materials, usually from leaves toother parts of the plant.
  • Phloem in angiosperms is composedof sieve tube elements, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.
  • Gymnosperms have albuminous cells and sieve cells. They lack sieve tubes and companion cells.
  • Sieve tube elements –
    • They are also long, tube-like structures, arranged longitudinally and are associated with the companion cells.
    • Their end walls are perforated in a sieve-like manner to form the sieve plates.
    • A mature sieve element possesses a peripheral cytoplasm and a large vacuole but lacks a nucleus.
  • Companion cells –
    • The functions of sieve tubes are controlled by the nucleus of companion cells.
    • The companion cells are specialised parenchymatous cells, which are closely associated with sieve tube elements.
    • The sieve tube elements and companion cells are connected by pit fields present between their common longitudinal walls.
    • The companion cells help in maintaining the pressure gradient in the sieve tubes.
  • Phloem parenchyma –
    • Itis made up of elongated, tapering cylindrical cells which have dense cytoplasm and nucleus.
    • The cell wall is composed of cellulose and has pits through which plasmodesmatal connections exist between the cells.
    • The phloem parenchyma stores food material and other substances like resins, latex and mucilage.
    • Phloem parenchyma is absent in most of the monocotyledons.
  • Phloem fibres (bast fibres)
    • They are made up of sclerenchymatous cells.
    • These are generally absent in the primary phloem but are found in the secondary phloem.
    • These are much elongated, unbranched and have pointed, needle like apices.
    • The cell wall of phloem fibres is quite thick.
    • At maturity, these fibres lose their protoplasm and become dead.
    • Phloem fibres of jute, flax and hemp are used commercially.

 

  • The first formed primary phloem consists of narrow sieve tubes and is referred to as protophloem and the later formed phloem has bigger sieve tubes and is referred to as metaphloem.

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THE TISSUE SYSTEM

On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types of tissue systems.

These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.

Epidermal Tissue System

  • The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal appendages – the trichomes and hairs.
  • Epidermis –
    • It is the outer most layer of the primary plant body.
    • It is made up of elongated, compactly arranged cells, which form a continuous layer.
    • Epidermis is usually single layered.
    • Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole.
  • Cuticle –
    • It covers the outside of the epidermis.
    • It is a waxy thick layer.
    • It prevents the loss of water.
    • Cuticle is absent in roots.
  • Stomata –
    • They are present in the epidermis of leaves.
    • Stomata regulate the process of transpiration and gaseous exchange.
    • Each stoma is composed of two bean shaped cells known as guard cells.
    • In grasses, the guard cells are dumbbell shaped.
    • The outer walls of guard cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards the stomatal pore) are highly thickened.
    • The guard cells possess chloroplasts and regulate the opening and closing of stomata.
    • Sometimes, a few epidermal cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and size and are known as subsidiary cells.
    • The stomatal aperture, guard cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal apparatus.
  • Epidermal appendages –
    • Roothairs – these areunicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water andminerals from the soil.
    • Trichomes –these are present on stem. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.They may be branched or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may evenbe secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due totranspiration.

Ground Tissue System

  • All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground tissue.
  • It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
  • Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots.
  • Inleaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containingcells and is called mesophyll.

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Vascular Tissue System

  • The vascular system consists of complex tissues,the phloem and the xylem.
  • The xylem and phloem together constitute vascular bundles.
  • In dicotyledonous stems, cambium is present between phloem and xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the presence of cambium possess the ability to form secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence are called open vascular bundles.
  • In the monocotyledons,the vascular bundles have no cambium present in them. Hence, since they do not form secondary tissues they are referred to as closed.
  • When xylem and phloem within a vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate manner on different radii, the arrangement is called radial such as in roots.
  • In conjoint type of vascular bundles,the xylem and phloem are situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular bundles are common in stems and leaves. The conjoint vascular bundles usually have the phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.

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ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

Dicotyledonous Root (Sunflower Root)

Epidermis –             outermost layer,many cells protrude in the form of unicellular root                                               hairs.

Cortex –                     consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells with                                                       intercellular spaces.

Endodermis –          innermost layer of the cortex. It comprises a single layer of barrel-                                               shaped cells without any intercellular spaces. The tangential as well as                                       radial walls of the endodermal cells have a deposition of water                                                         impermeable,waxy material-suberin in the form of casparian strips.

Pericycle –                 few layers of thick-walled parenchyomatous cells, Next to                                                                endodermis. Initiation of lateral roots and vascular cambium during                                            the secondary growth takes place in these cells.

Pith –                           The pith is small or inconspicuous.

Conjuctive tissue – The parenchymatous cells which lie between the xylem and                                                               the phloem are called conjuctive tissue.

Vascular bundles – Radial/alternate type. Exarch xylem. There are usually two to four                                                xylem and phloem patches. Later, a cambium ring develops between                                            the xylem and phloem.

Stele –                         All tissues on the innerside of the endodermis such as pericycle,                                                    vascular bundles and pithconstitute the stele.

 

Monocotyledonous Root

The anatomy of the monocot root is similar to the dicot root in many respects.

It has epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular bundles and pith.

As compared to the dicot root, monocots have more xylem bundles (usually more than six – polyarch).

Pith is large and well developed.

Monocotyledonous roots do not undergo any secondary growth.

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Dicotyledonous Stem

Epidermis –             outermost protective layer of the stem Covered with a thin layer of                                              cuticle, it may bear trichomes and a few stomata.

Hypodermis –         consists of a few layers of collenchymatous cells just below the                                                       epidermis, which provide mechanical strength to the young stem.

Cortex –                    consist of rounded thin walled parenchymatous cells with conspicuous                                         intercellular spaces.

Endodermis –         The innermost layer of the cortex is called the endodermis. The cells of                                       the endodermis are rich in starch grains and the layer is also referred                                           to as the starch sheath.

Pericycle –                present on the inner side of the endodermis and above the phloem in                                           the form of semi-lunar patches of sclerenchyma.

VascuIr bundles – Conjoint, collateral, open type; endarch xylem; arranged in a ring.

Pith –                         A large number of rounded, parenchymatous cells with large                                                            intercellular spaces which occupy the central portion of the stem                                                  constitute the pith.

 

Monocotyledonous Stem

  • sclerenchymatous hypodermis,
  • large, undifferentiated, conspicuous parenchymatous ground tissue large number of scattered vascular bundles, each surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath,
  • Vascular bundles are conjoint and closed. Peripheral vascular bundles are generally smaller than the centrally located ones.
  • The phloem parenchyma is absent, and water-containing cavities are present within the vascular bundles.

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Dorsiventral (Dicotyledonous) Leaf

Epidermis –                   it covers both the upper surface (adaxial epidermis) and lower                                                         surface (abaxial epidermis) of the leaf and has a conspicuous cuticle.

                                          The lower (abaxial) epidermis generally bears more stomata than                                                   the upper (adaxial) epidermis. The latter may even lack stomata.

Mesophyll –                  parenchymatous cells present between the upperand the lower                                                      epidermis. it possesses chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis.

It has two types of cells – the palisade parenchyma andthe spongy                                              parenchyma.

Palisade parenchyma is placed adaxially and made up of elongated                                                 cells, which are arranged vertically and parallel to each other.

Spongy parenchyma made up of oval or round and loosely arranged                                               spongy parenchymatous cells. There are numerous large spaces and                                             air cavities between these cells.

Vascular system –       vascular bundles are seen in the veins and the midrib.

                                      The size of the vascular bundles are dependent onthe size of the veins.

The veins vary in thickness in the reticulate venation of the dicot leaves.

The vascular bundles are surrounded by a layer of thick walled bundle                                          sheath cells.

 

Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf

The anatomy of isobilateral leaf is similar to that of the dorsiventral leaf in many ways.

It shows the following characteristic differences –

  • In an isobilateral leaf, the stomata are present on both the surfaces of the epidermis.
  • mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.
  • In grasses, certain adaxial epidermal cells along the veins modify themselves into large, empty, colourless cells. These are called bulliform cells. When the bulliform cells in the leaves have absorbed water and are turgid, the leaf surface is exposed. When they are flaccid due to water stress, they make the leaves curl inwards to minimise water loss.
  • The parallel venation in monocot leaves is reflected in the near similar sizes of vascular bundles (except in main veins).

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SECONDARY GROWTH

  • The growth of the roots and stems in length with the help of apical meristem is called the primary growth.
  • Apart from primary growth most dicotyledonous plants exhibit an increase in girth. This increase is called the secondary growth.
  • Secondary growth also occurs in stems and roots of gymnosperms. However, secondary growth does not occur in monocotyledons.
  • The tissues involved in secondary growth are the two lateral meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium.
  • Secondary growth due to Vascular Cambium
  • The meristematic layer that is responsible for cutting off vascular tissues – xylem and pholem – is called vascular cambium.
  • In the young stem it is present in patches as a single layer between the xylem and phloem. Later it forms a complete ring.

Formation of cambial ring

In dicot stems, the cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem is the intrafascicular cambium. The cells of medullary cells, adjoining these intra fascicular cambium become meristematic and form the inter fascicular cambium. Thus, a continuous ring of cambium is formed.

Cambium ring = inter + intrafascicular cambium

Activity of the cambial ring

  • The cambial ring becomes active and begins to cut off new cells, both towards the inner and the outer sides.
  • The cells cut off towards pith,mature into secondary xylem and the cells cut off towards periphery mature into secondary phloem.
  • The cambium is generally more active on the inner side than on the outer. As a result, the amount of secondary xylem produced is more than secondary phloem and soon forms a compact mass.
  • The primary and secondary phloems get gradually crushed due to the continued formation and accumulation of secondary xylem.
  • The primary xylem however remains more or less intact, in or around the centre.
  • At some places, the cambium forms a narrow band of parenchyma, which passes through the secondary xylem and the secondary phloem in the radial directions. These are the secondary medullary rays.

Spring wood and autumn wood

  • The activity of cambium is different in different conditions.
  • As in temperate regions, where the climatic conditions are not uniform through the year, In the spring season, cambium is very active and produces a large number of xylary elements having vessels with wider cavities. The wood formed during this season is called spring wood or early wood.
  • In winter, the cambium is less active and forms fewer xylary elements that have narrow vessels, and this wood is called autumn wood or late wood.
  • The spring wood is lighter in colour and has a lower density whereas the autumn wood is darker and has a higher density.
  • The two kinds of woods that appear as alternate concentric rings, constitute an annual ring. Annual rings seen in a cut stem give an estimate of the age of the tree.
  • Dendrochronology – study/finding age of plant with the help of annual ring.

 

Spring wood

Autumn wood

Cambium is very active. Cambium is less active.
Large no of xylary vessels are produced. Fewer xylary elements.
Vessels with wider cavities. Vessels with narrow cavities.
Lighter in color Darker in color.
Lower density Higher density.

Heartwood and sapwood

  • In old trees, the greater part of secondary xylem is dark brown due to deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils in the central or innermost layers of the stem. These substances make it hard, durable and resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insects. This region comprises dead elements with highly lignified walls and is called

The heartwood does not conduct water but it gives mechanical support to the stem.

  • The peripheral region of the secondary xylem, is lighter in colour and is known as the It is involved in the conduction of water and minerals from root to leaf.

Heartwood (Duramen)

Sapwood (alburnum)

Central part of secondary xylem Peripheral part of secondary xylem
Dark brown in colour Lighter in colour
deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils No deposition of organic matter.
Resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insect. Not Resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insect.
Comprises dead elements with highly lignified wall. Walls are not highly lignified.
Provide mechanical support to stem Conduction of water and minerals from roots to leaf.

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 Secondary growth due to Cork Cambium

  • As the stem continues to increase in girth due to the activity of vascular cambium, the outer cortical and epidermis layers get broken and need to be replaced to provide new protective cell layers.
  • Hence, another meristematic tissue called cork cambium or phellogen develops, usually in the cortex region.
  • Phellogen is a couple of layers thick. It is made of narrow, thin-walled and nearly rectangular cells.
  • Phellogen cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate into cork or phellem while the inner cells differentiate into secondary cortex or
  • The cork is impervious to water due to suberin deposition in the cell wall. The cells of secondary cortex are parenchymatous.
  • Phellogen + phellem + phelloderm =
  • Due to activity of the cork cambium, pressure builds up on the remaining layers peripheral to phellogen and ultimately these layers die and slough off.
  • Bark refers to all tissues exterior to the vascular cambium (includes secondary phloem).
  • Bark that is formed early in the season is called early or soft Towards the end of the season late or hard bark is formed.
  • At certain regions, the phellogen cuts off closely arranged parenchymatous cells on the outer side instead of cork cells. These parenchymatous cells soon rupture the epidermis, forming a lens shaped openings called lenticels. Lenticels permit the exchange of gases between the outer atmosphere and the internal tissue of the stem. These occur in most woody trees.

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Secondary Growth in Roots

  • In the dicot root, the vascular cambium is completely secondary in origin.
  • It originates from the tissue located just below the phloem bundles, a portion of pericycle tissue, above the protoxylem forming a complete and continuous wavy ring, which later becomes circular.
  • Further events are similar to those already described above for a dicotyledon stem.

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printable pdf file is given in below post…

CHAPTER 6 – ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Judgement day : What to do and How to approach the paper..(a complete guide by successful students)

Compose yourself. It’s the day you have worked for.

if you don’t see yourself as a winner, then you won’t perform as a winner”

Anxiety on the exam day is inevitable, but you must not let the anxiety to cloud your mind. Promise yourself that you will stay calm and give your best because you know once you give your best nothing can stop you from getting what you deserve.

You have read well, practiced hard, did all that was needed. Now its show time so here are some tips that will help you in performing better.

  1. Make sure you had a good sleep- a good 6-7 hrs. sleep will relax your mind and increase your efficiency. Don’t stay up till late in night.

 

  1. Eat light- don’t skip the breakfast and try to keep it light as many people feel nauseated before exams due to anxiety and apprehension.

 

  1. Gather your essentials- ensure you have checked all essentials like your admit card, Id proof and whatever else you require foe exams before leaving for the exam to avoid any hassle.

 

  1. Reach your Centre well in time- avoid any rush or hurry and reach your exam centre well on time. Find yourself a quiet place and avoid the gangs voicing their fears and discussing questions.

 

  1. Don’t carry loads of books to exam centre- you don’t want to stress out your mind few hours before exam. So relax, you have read everything before. Don’t start flipping pages of all the books. Either sit relaxed or you may just go through one liners, diagrams and high yield points you have prepared for exams. (follow whichever suits you). Don’t read long paragraphs, it will stress you out. Close all the books atleast 15 minutes before entering the exam hall.

 

  1. Don’t panic seeing the paper- find your seat in the exam hall and make yourself comfortable. 15mins before the exam you will handed the OMR. Very carefully fill in all details like name, roll number. 5 minutes before the exam you will be handed the question paper. When asked open it and don’t panic seeing the paper even if you don’t know the first few questions you saw. Its ok you will figure it out.

 

  1. Attempt your paper in rounds- In the first round attempt the questions you are absolutely sure about, no guess work. Don’t waste time on questions you are facing difficulty with in first round. Don’t attempt physics first as it may consume lot of time which will panic you. It is best to attempt biology first which comprises 50% of the paper and can be completed in less than 45 minutes. It will make you feel good and confident once you complete 50% of the paper and lot of time remaining. Leave the questions that require lengthy calculations or are confusing for second round. once you are done with first round you would have completed most of the ques.

In the second round deal with remaining questions. Think over them, rule out options that can’t be answer, calculate the numericals carefully and chose your answer.

 

  1. Be calculative- before sitting for any exam, you must have an idea about previous years’ cutoff. For an outstanding rank you must be calculative of the risk you must take.
  • Play safe only if you think you attempted fairly above the last years’ cutoff in the first round itself.
  • If you think you attempted just around cutoff in first round then you must make some smart guesses and choose your answers intelligently. Never make blind guesses.
  • If you think you attempted below cutoff score then you must take some risk because it’s do or die.Try ruling out the options to find the most probable answer. You must attempt fair enough questions to get a good rank because no one has 100% accuracy. So attempt sufficiently according to marking scheme and difficulty level of paper.

 

  1. Mind the time- divide your time for each subject in the paper and be aware of the time left with you because you don’t want any silly mistakes and errors in filling OMR that usually happens out of desperation to finish the exam on time. fill in the OMR simultaneously and not at last as will cause errors. Also ensure that no questions go unread, so, manage your time accordingly.

 

  1. Take your time don’t let blunders happen-read ques very carefully and don’t rush to giving answers. Take your time, think well and then mark the answers carefully. Pay attention on words like- not, except, all of these in the questions and options.

 

It’s time to shine. All the very best for the exams.

by –

Biologyaipmt team

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Last Month Tips To Give Your Preparations a Cutting Edge- By Dr. Aparna Tripathi (AIPG 2016 AIR-16)

Yes, its APRIL! Time to put in your best effort and harvest the success.

With the calendar page turned to April and just a month remaining for the AIPMT, I believe it would have surely got the heart rates soaring. The anxiety levels would be high, but remember cracking AIPMT is a game of nerves. One must learn to be calm and focused in this crucial last month of preparation to book your seat in your dream college.

Entrance exams apart from evaluating the knowledge of aspirants also tests their analytical skills and logical thinking capability. Hence, one must study smart and most importantly be aware of what to do and what not to.

Here’s a smart plan to Fast-track your revision plan in the last month and to achieve maximum efficiency.

  1. Categorize your course: firstly, divide whatever you have read till now in 2 categories:
    1. I know it well
    2. I always forget this

For the first category since you know these topics well you just need to revise them once very quickly without wasting time on these topics.

For the second category since you always tend to forget these topics or you find it difficult, these topics must keep passing before your eyes everyday. So mark these topics in your book and make sure to revise them repeatedly.

  1. Divide your day: divide your day into 2 parts. One for revising your 3 subjects- biology, physics and chemistry, the other part for solving previous exam papers. Make a habit of solving one paper everyday in 3 hrs. duration just like you are supposed to do on the exam day.
  1. No study is complete without self-evaluation: keep a check on your performance by giving regular tests and evaluating your performance. After giving every test make sure to analyze the areas you need to improve and in which questions you go wrong. Read those topics well, clear your doubts and don’t repeat those mistakes.
  1. Revise the diagrams in NCERT extremely well: diagrams in NCERT biology textbooks are asked in exam as it is in AIPMT. Make sure you go through these well enough.
  1. Eat healthy, sleep well, think better: It is most important to stay healthy so have good and nutritious food. take a good sleep of atleast 6hrs daily. Take small breaks of 10 minutes to relax your mind and eyes after every 3 hrs. of studying.  Stay away from negative people and negative thoughts. Refrain from social media till your exams.
  1. Believe in your abilities and hard work: your hard work will pay dividends. Don’t let anything demoralize you. Believe that you will do it as you have worked for it. trust your strengths and have faith.

Your dream seat in prestigious medical colleges in the country awaits you. All the very best to all the aspirants.

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