Well! It’s not the time to panic – A complete guide regarding NEET 2016

Well! It’s not the time to panic

A complete guide regarding NEET 2016

Honorable Supreme court of India in its judgement has made NEET (national eligibility entrance test) compulsory for admission in all medical, dental colleges in India.

Although this move may seem sudden but it’s not a time to panic because pattern of exam will be same and it’s a common decision for everyone and no one had an idea of it.

What are the important changes

NEET phase – I on 1st May (for those who filled the form for AIPMT)

NEET phase – II  on 24th July (for those who applied only for state entrances not for Aipmt)

Details regarding NEET phase –II will be out after 1 week. (on or After 7th May)

All other exams for admission in private medical colleges and for state quota in Govt colleges are scrapped.

Syllabus – not officially announced but it should be same as Aipmt.

Exam pattern – not announced officially but again should be same as AIPMT [Total 180 Qs = 45(P)+45(C)+90(B); +4, -1 marking scheme]

Result date – 17th august

Counselling and admission – All procedures regarding counselling and admission should finish by 1st Sept.

What should Students Do?

  • Students who are appearing in 1st may Exam shouldn’t distract. Just revise whatever you have learned and NCERT. Also focus on Diagrams of NCERT. Don’t think about this ruckus, just give your best.
  • Student who didn’t Apply for AIPMT – you also shouldn’t worry and should start reading NCERT from today itself. Try to solve previous papers of AIPMT and AIIMS (2007-2015). You need not to worry about syllabus and all because your board syllabus is quite similar to CBSE syllabus and you won’t face much problem reading NCERT. Don’t go for many books.

Students should also read our previous articles on how to prepare for AIPMT (= NEET) in last month.

https://biologyaipmt.wordpress.com/2016/04/04/last-month-tips-to-give-your-preparations-a-cutting-edge-by-dr-aparna-tripathi-aipg-2016-air-16/

we will keep you updated on further developments. So, be in touch and also like our Fb page

https://www.facebook.com/biologyaipmt/

please post all your queries and doubts in comments section and contacts us on given number.

All the best for exam!!! Believe in yourself…

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The Beginners Guide- How to start your preparations for PMTs

 How to start your preparations for PMTs

Preparing for PMTs requires a proper planning and methodical and oriented efforts. Everyone must chalk out an effective plan for themselves that suit them and not just blindly follow others because what may suit others might not suit you. Method of studying may vary but there are certain common ingredients that are required to succeed – Regularity, Revision and Hard work.

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There are certain questions in every aspirant’s mind when they begin their preparations. With this article we have tried to answer those questions here.

When do I start start preparing?

Nowadays some people follow the trend of joining coaching from 9th or 10th standard, but I believe honest preparation for 2 years i.e. XIth and XIIth standard is sufficiently enough to crack any PMTs. So, those who aspire to clear PMTs must start preparing from their XIth standard.

Do I need to join any coaching institute?

Coaching institutes don’t wave a magic wand or give you a potion and admission to any of the institutes doesn’t ensure success. It is you who will have to study and work hard but it is beneficial to join any coaching institute to help you clear your doubts. For this you need not join any 5star institute. You can join any good local institute that will help you with your doubts and guide you through the journey.

Should I join any Test series?

Regular test to evaluate your preparation is very important. It is advisable to join any good test series because it will put you in the habit of attempting questions in a given time frame and workout your brains and a feel of exams.

Remember one thing, though it is good if you rank high on these test series but don’t get disheartened even if you are not because those who rank well in test series don’t necessarily get good rank in exams.

What you must ensure is that you perform consistently and that you rank well in full course test series when the entire course is covered.

How many hours do I need to study?

There is no fixed no. of hours one must devote. This depends entirely on individual needs. What is more important is regularity- it is more important to study regularly than to study 10 hrs one day and not study at all the another day.

Make a habit of studying daily and regularly in a peaceful environment without distractions. Even 5 hrs. of study daily is enough if one studies without distractions and on a regular basis.

Which books should I read?

Most important tool to crack most PMTs are- NCERTs, the mother of all books.

It is a must to read NCERTs of class XIth and XIIth very thoroughly and sincerely as most of the questions are asked from these books.

Apart from NCERTs you must have the question papers of last 10 years so that you can analyze the type of questions asked.

Have a good MCQ book to practice the questions but don’t run after solving loads of MCQ books. Don’t think that solving high level questions from H.C. Verma or Mukherjee will ensure you success. In most cases you end up wasting your time in solving these IIT level books. Instead you must focus on clearing your concepts, memorizing important formulas and solving questions based on your exam pattern and level.

Should I make notes?

Yes! Yes! Yes! You must always try to summarize all that you have read in concise and easy to remember points.

Write what you feel is important for exams and highlight and color code your notes to make it appealing as it will get easily memorized.

Making good notes will save you so much time and help you immensely in revision.

Should I make a time table?

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More important than making a time table is to set a goal. Set a goal and then divide it into short term goals. You must decide your goal for everyday that you have to complete this much of course or solve these many no. of questions. Don’t judge your study by the no. of hours you devoted but by analyzing how much did you read in those hours and what did you gain effectively because smartly used 5 hours can be better than 10 hours of just sitting with a book but effectively gaining nothing.

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Now to summarize the preparation strategy in points:

  1. Have a plan and a schedule.
  2. Divide the time you need to devote for each subject according to your needs.
  3. Divide your course of each subject according to time you require to finish reading those.
  4. Set short term goals.
  5. Make good notes
  6. Always try to summarize what you read
  7. Study regularly in a fixed place of your choice which is calm and free of distractions.
  8. Evaluate your study by regular tests.
  9. Work on your shortcomings. Always try to improvise.
  10. Revise well. Without revision everything you have read will be wasted because you will forget if you don’t revise.
  11. Make a note of important dates for filling forms and exam dates.
  12. Make small pocket notes that you can look at even if you are travelling.
  13. Eat well, think better.
  14. Work hard, because there is really no shortcut to success.

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CHAPTER 6 – ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

CHAPTER 6

ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

  • Study of internal structure of plants is called anatomy.
  • Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure.
  • Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments.

THE TISSUES

A tissue is a group of cells having a common origin and usually performing a common function.

Classification of tissues –

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Meristematic Tissues

  • This tissue is responsible for active cell division which results in Growth in plants.
  • Based on location and origin, Plants have different kinds of meristems.
  • Apical meristem –

The meristems which occur at the tips of roots and shoots and produce primary tissues.e.g., root and shoot apical meristem.

During the formation of leaves and elongation of stem, some cells ‘left behind’ from shoot apical meristem, constitute the axillary bud. Such buds are present in the axils of leaves and are capable of forming a branch or a flower.

  • Intercalary meristem –

The meristem which occurs between mature tissues is known as intercalary meristem.

They occur in grasses and regenerate parts removed by the grazing herbivores.

Both apical meristems and intercalary meristems are primary meristems because they appear early in life of a plant and contribute to the formation of the primary plant body.

  • Lateral meristem –

The meristem that occurs in the mature regions of roots and shoots of many plants, particularly those that produce woody axis and appear later than primary meristem is called the secondary or lateral meristem.

Fascicular vascular cambium, interfascicular cambium and cork-cambium are examples of lateral meristems. These are responsible for producing the secondary tissues.

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Permanent Tissues

  • The cells of the permanent tissues do not generallydivide further.
  • Permanent tissues having all cellssimilar in structure and function are called simpletissues. Permanent tissues having many differenttypes of cells are called complex tissues.

 Simple Tissues

Parenchyma –

  • It forms the majorcomponent within organs.
  • The cells of theparenchyma are generally isodiametric.
  • Their walls are thin and madeup of cellulose.
  • They may either be closely packedor have small intercellular spaces.
  • Theparenchyma performs various functions likephotosynthesis, storage, secretion.

Collenchyma –

  • It is present in layers below theepidermis (hypodermis) in dicotyledonous plants.
  • It is foundeither as a homogeneous layer or in patches.
  • Itconsists of cells which are much thickened at thecorners due to a deposition of cellulose,hemicellulose and pectin.
  • Collenchymatous cellsmay be oval, spherical or polygonal and oftencontain chloroplasts.
  • Intercellularspaces are absent.
  • They provide mechanicalsupport to the growing parts of the plant such asyoung stem and petiole of a leaf.

Sclerenchyma –

  • It consists of long, narrow cellswith thick and lignified cell walls having a few ornumerous pits.
  • They are usually dead and withoutprotoplasts.
  • It provides mechanical support to organs.
  • On the basis of variation in form,structure, origin and development, sclerenchymamay be either fibres or sclereids.
  • Fibers– these arethick-walled, elongated and pointed cells,generally occuring in groups, in various parts ofthe plant.
  • Sclereids – theseare spherical, oval orcylindrical, highly thickened dead cells with very narrow cavities (lumen). These are commonly found in the fruit walls of nuts; pulp of fruits like guava, pear and sapota; seed coats of legumes and leaves of tea.

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 Complex Tissues

Xylem –

  • Xylem functions as a conducting tissue for water and minerals from roots to the stem and leaves.
  • It also provides mechanical strength to the plant parts.
  • It is composed of four different kinds of elements, namely, tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.
  • Tracheids –
    • Tracheids are elongated or tube like cells with thick and lignified walls and tapering ends.
    • These are dead and are without protoplasm.
    • The inner layers of the cell walls have thickenings which vary in form.
    • In flowering plants, tracheids and vessels are the main water transporting elements.
  • Vessels –
    • Vessel is a long cylindrical tube-like structure made up of many cells called vessel members, each with lignified walls and a large central cavity.
    • The vessel cells are also devoid of protoplasm.
    • Vessel members are interconnected through perforations in their common walls.
    • Gymnosperms lack vessels intheir xylem. The presence of vessels is a characteristic featureof angiosperms.
  • Xylem fibres –
    • They have highly thickened walls and obliterated central lumens.
    • These may either be septate or aseptate.
  • Xylem parenchyma –
    • Cells are living and thin-walled,and their cell walls are made up of cellulose.
    • They store food materials in the form of starch or fat, and other substances like tannins.
    • The radial conduction of water takes place by the ray parenchymatous cells.

 

  • Primary xylem is of two types – protoxylem and metaxylem. The first formed primary xylem elements are called protoxylem and the later formed primary xylem is called metaxylem.
  1. Endarch –Instems, the protoxylem lies towards the centre (pith) and themetaxylem lies towards the periphery of the organ. This typeof primary xylem is called endarch.
  2. Exarch –In roots, the protoxylemlies towards periphery and metaxylem lies towards the centre.Such arrangement of primary xylem is called exarch.

Phloem –

  • It transports food materials, usually from leaves toother parts of the plant.
  • Phloem in angiosperms is composedof sieve tube elements, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and phloem fibres.
  • Gymnosperms have albuminous cells and sieve cells. They lack sieve tubes and companion cells.
  • Sieve tube elements –
    • They are also long, tube-like structures, arranged longitudinally and are associated with the companion cells.
    • Their end walls are perforated in a sieve-like manner to form the sieve plates.
    • A mature sieve element possesses a peripheral cytoplasm and a large vacuole but lacks a nucleus.
  • Companion cells –
    • The functions of sieve tubes are controlled by the nucleus of companion cells.
    • The companion cells are specialised parenchymatous cells, which are closely associated with sieve tube elements.
    • The sieve tube elements and companion cells are connected by pit fields present between their common longitudinal walls.
    • The companion cells help in maintaining the pressure gradient in the sieve tubes.
  • Phloem parenchyma –
    • Itis made up of elongated, tapering cylindrical cells which have dense cytoplasm and nucleus.
    • The cell wall is composed of cellulose and has pits through which plasmodesmatal connections exist between the cells.
    • The phloem parenchyma stores food material and other substances like resins, latex and mucilage.
    • Phloem parenchyma is absent in most of the monocotyledons.
  • Phloem fibres (bast fibres)
    • They are made up of sclerenchymatous cells.
    • These are generally absent in the primary phloem but are found in the secondary phloem.
    • These are much elongated, unbranched and have pointed, needle like apices.
    • The cell wall of phloem fibres is quite thick.
    • At maturity, these fibres lose their protoplasm and become dead.
    • Phloem fibres of jute, flax and hemp are used commercially.

 

  • The first formed primary phloem consists of narrow sieve tubes and is referred to as protophloem and the later formed phloem has bigger sieve tubes and is referred to as metaphloem.

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THE TISSUE SYSTEM

On the basis of their structure and location, there are three types of tissue systems.

These are the epidermal tissue system, the ground or fundamental tissue system and the vascular or conducting tissue system.

Epidermal Tissue System

  • The epidermal tissue system forms the outer-most covering of the whole plant body and comprises epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal appendages – the trichomes and hairs.
  • Epidermis –
    • It is the outer most layer of the primary plant body.
    • It is made up of elongated, compactly arranged cells, which form a continuous layer.
    • Epidermis is usually single layered.
    • Epidermal cells are parenchymatous with a small amount of cytoplasm lining the cell wall and a large vacuole.
  • Cuticle –
    • It covers the outside of the epidermis.
    • It is a waxy thick layer.
    • It prevents the loss of water.
    • Cuticle is absent in roots.
  • Stomata –
    • They are present in the epidermis of leaves.
    • Stomata regulate the process of transpiration and gaseous exchange.
    • Each stoma is composed of two bean shaped cells known as guard cells.
    • In grasses, the guard cells are dumbbell shaped.
    • The outer walls of guard cells (away from the stomatal pore) are thin and the inner walls (towards the stomatal pore) are highly thickened.
    • The guard cells possess chloroplasts and regulate the opening and closing of stomata.
    • Sometimes, a few epidermal cells, in the vicinity of the guard cells become specialised in their shape and size and are known as subsidiary cells.
    • The stomatal aperture, guard cells and the surrounding subsidiary cells are together called stomatal apparatus.
  • Epidermal appendages –
    • Roothairs – these areunicellular elongations of the epidermal cells and help absorb water andminerals from the soil.
    • Trichomes –these are present on stem. The trichomes in the shoot system are usually multicellular.They may be branched or unbranched and soft or stiff. They may evenbe secretory. The trichomes help in preventing water loss due totranspiration.

Ground Tissue System

  • All tissues except epidermis and vascular bundles constitute the ground tissue.
  • It consists of simple tissues such as parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
  • Parenchymatous cells are usually present in cortex,pericycle, pith and medullary rays, in the primary stems and roots.
  • Inleaves, the ground tissue consists of thin-walled chloroplast containingcells and is called mesophyll.

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Vascular Tissue System

  • The vascular system consists of complex tissues,the phloem and the xylem.
  • The xylem and phloem together constitute vascular bundles.
  • In dicotyledonous stems, cambium is present between phloem and xylem. Such vascular bundles because of the presence of cambium possess the ability to form secondary xylem and phloem tissues, and hence are called open vascular bundles.
  • In the monocotyledons,the vascular bundles have no cambium present in them. Hence, since they do not form secondary tissues they are referred to as closed.
  • When xylem and phloem within a vascular bundle are arranged in an alternate manner on different radii, the arrangement is called radial such as in roots.
  • In conjoint type of vascular bundles,the xylem and phloem are situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. Such vascular bundles are common in stems and leaves. The conjoint vascular bundles usually have the phloem located only on the outer side of xylem.

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ANATOMY OF DICOTYLEDONOUS AND MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PLANTS

Dicotyledonous Root (Sunflower Root)

Epidermis –             outermost layer,many cells protrude in the form of unicellular root                                               hairs.

Cortex –                     consists of several layers of thin-walled parenchyma cells with                                                       intercellular spaces.

Endodermis –          innermost layer of the cortex. It comprises a single layer of barrel-                                               shaped cells without any intercellular spaces. The tangential as well as                                       radial walls of the endodermal cells have a deposition of water                                                         impermeable,waxy material-suberin in the form of casparian strips.

Pericycle –                 few layers of thick-walled parenchyomatous cells, Next to                                                                endodermis. Initiation of lateral roots and vascular cambium during                                            the secondary growth takes place in these cells.

Pith –                           The pith is small or inconspicuous.

Conjuctive tissue – The parenchymatous cells which lie between the xylem and                                                               the phloem are called conjuctive tissue.

Vascular bundles – Radial/alternate type. Exarch xylem. There are usually two to four                                                xylem and phloem patches. Later, a cambium ring develops between                                            the xylem and phloem.

Stele –                         All tissues on the innerside of the endodermis such as pericycle,                                                    vascular bundles and pithconstitute the stele.

 

Monocotyledonous Root

The anatomy of the monocot root is similar to the dicot root in many respects.

It has epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, vascular bundles and pith.

As compared to the dicot root, monocots have more xylem bundles (usually more than six – polyarch).

Pith is large and well developed.

Monocotyledonous roots do not undergo any secondary growth.

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Dicotyledonous Stem

Epidermis –             outermost protective layer of the stem Covered with a thin layer of                                              cuticle, it may bear trichomes and a few stomata.

Hypodermis –         consists of a few layers of collenchymatous cells just below the                                                       epidermis, which provide mechanical strength to the young stem.

Cortex –                    consist of rounded thin walled parenchymatous cells with conspicuous                                         intercellular spaces.

Endodermis –         The innermost layer of the cortex is called the endodermis. The cells of                                       the endodermis are rich in starch grains and the layer is also referred                                           to as the starch sheath.

Pericycle –                present on the inner side of the endodermis and above the phloem in                                           the form of semi-lunar patches of sclerenchyma.

VascuIr bundles – Conjoint, collateral, open type; endarch xylem; arranged in a ring.

Pith –                         A large number of rounded, parenchymatous cells with large                                                            intercellular spaces which occupy the central portion of the stem                                                  constitute the pith.

 

Monocotyledonous Stem

  • sclerenchymatous hypodermis,
  • large, undifferentiated, conspicuous parenchymatous ground tissue large number of scattered vascular bundles, each surrounded by a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath,
  • Vascular bundles are conjoint and closed. Peripheral vascular bundles are generally smaller than the centrally located ones.
  • The phloem parenchyma is absent, and water-containing cavities are present within the vascular bundles.

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Dorsiventral (Dicotyledonous) Leaf

Epidermis –                   it covers both the upper surface (adaxial epidermis) and lower                                                         surface (abaxial epidermis) of the leaf and has a conspicuous cuticle.

                                          The lower (abaxial) epidermis generally bears more stomata than                                                   the upper (adaxial) epidermis. The latter may even lack stomata.

Mesophyll –                  parenchymatous cells present between the upperand the lower                                                      epidermis. it possesses chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis.

It has two types of cells – the palisade parenchyma andthe spongy                                              parenchyma.

Palisade parenchyma is placed adaxially and made up of elongated                                                 cells, which are arranged vertically and parallel to each other.

Spongy parenchyma made up of oval or round and loosely arranged                                               spongy parenchymatous cells. There are numerous large spaces and                                             air cavities between these cells.

Vascular system –       vascular bundles are seen in the veins and the midrib.

                                      The size of the vascular bundles are dependent onthe size of the veins.

The veins vary in thickness in the reticulate venation of the dicot leaves.

The vascular bundles are surrounded by a layer of thick walled bundle                                          sheath cells.

 

Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf

The anatomy of isobilateral leaf is similar to that of the dorsiventral leaf in many ways.

It shows the following characteristic differences –

  • In an isobilateral leaf, the stomata are present on both the surfaces of the epidermis.
  • mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.
  • In grasses, certain adaxial epidermal cells along the veins modify themselves into large, empty, colourless cells. These are called bulliform cells. When the bulliform cells in the leaves have absorbed water and are turgid, the leaf surface is exposed. When they are flaccid due to water stress, they make the leaves curl inwards to minimise water loss.
  • The parallel venation in monocot leaves is reflected in the near similar sizes of vascular bundles (except in main veins).

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SECONDARY GROWTH

  • The growth of the roots and stems in length with the help of apical meristem is called the primary growth.
  • Apart from primary growth most dicotyledonous plants exhibit an increase in girth. This increase is called the secondary growth.
  • Secondary growth also occurs in stems and roots of gymnosperms. However, secondary growth does not occur in monocotyledons.
  • The tissues involved in secondary growth are the two lateral meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium.
  • Secondary growth due to Vascular Cambium
  • The meristematic layer that is responsible for cutting off vascular tissues – xylem and pholem – is called vascular cambium.
  • In the young stem it is present in patches as a single layer between the xylem and phloem. Later it forms a complete ring.

Formation of cambial ring

In dicot stems, the cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem is the intrafascicular cambium. The cells of medullary cells, adjoining these intra fascicular cambium become meristematic and form the inter fascicular cambium. Thus, a continuous ring of cambium is formed.

Cambium ring = inter + intrafascicular cambium

Activity of the cambial ring

  • The cambial ring becomes active and begins to cut off new cells, both towards the inner and the outer sides.
  • The cells cut off towards pith,mature into secondary xylem and the cells cut off towards periphery mature into secondary phloem.
  • The cambium is generally more active on the inner side than on the outer. As a result, the amount of secondary xylem produced is more than secondary phloem and soon forms a compact mass.
  • The primary and secondary phloems get gradually crushed due to the continued formation and accumulation of secondary xylem.
  • The primary xylem however remains more or less intact, in or around the centre.
  • At some places, the cambium forms a narrow band of parenchyma, which passes through the secondary xylem and the secondary phloem in the radial directions. These are the secondary medullary rays.

Spring wood and autumn wood

  • The activity of cambium is different in different conditions.
  • As in temperate regions, where the climatic conditions are not uniform through the year, In the spring season, cambium is very active and produces a large number of xylary elements having vessels with wider cavities. The wood formed during this season is called spring wood or early wood.
  • In winter, the cambium is less active and forms fewer xylary elements that have narrow vessels, and this wood is called autumn wood or late wood.
  • The spring wood is lighter in colour and has a lower density whereas the autumn wood is darker and has a higher density.
  • The two kinds of woods that appear as alternate concentric rings, constitute an annual ring. Annual rings seen in a cut stem give an estimate of the age of the tree.
  • Dendrochronology – study/finding age of plant with the help of annual ring.

 

Spring wood

Autumn wood

Cambium is very active. Cambium is less active.
Large no of xylary vessels are produced. Fewer xylary elements.
Vessels with wider cavities. Vessels with narrow cavities.
Lighter in color Darker in color.
Lower density Higher density.

Heartwood and sapwood

  • In old trees, the greater part of secondary xylem is dark brown due to deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils in the central or innermost layers of the stem. These substances make it hard, durable and resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insects. This region comprises dead elements with highly lignified walls and is called

The heartwood does not conduct water but it gives mechanical support to the stem.

  • The peripheral region of the secondary xylem, is lighter in colour and is known as the It is involved in the conduction of water and minerals from root to leaf.

Heartwood (Duramen)

Sapwood (alburnum)

Central part of secondary xylem Peripheral part of secondary xylem
Dark brown in colour Lighter in colour
deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils No deposition of organic matter.
Resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insect. Not Resistant to the attacks of micro-organisms and insect.
Comprises dead elements with highly lignified wall. Walls are not highly lignified.
Provide mechanical support to stem Conduction of water and minerals from roots to leaf.

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 Secondary growth due to Cork Cambium

  • As the stem continues to increase in girth due to the activity of vascular cambium, the outer cortical and epidermis layers get broken and need to be replaced to provide new protective cell layers.
  • Hence, another meristematic tissue called cork cambium or phellogen develops, usually in the cortex region.
  • Phellogen is a couple of layers thick. It is made of narrow, thin-walled and nearly rectangular cells.
  • Phellogen cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate into cork or phellem while the inner cells differentiate into secondary cortex or
  • The cork is impervious to water due to suberin deposition in the cell wall. The cells of secondary cortex are parenchymatous.
  • Phellogen + phellem + phelloderm =
  • Due to activity of the cork cambium, pressure builds up on the remaining layers peripheral to phellogen and ultimately these layers die and slough off.
  • Bark refers to all tissues exterior to the vascular cambium (includes secondary phloem).
  • Bark that is formed early in the season is called early or soft Towards the end of the season late or hard bark is formed.
  • At certain regions, the phellogen cuts off closely arranged parenchymatous cells on the outer side instead of cork cells. These parenchymatous cells soon rupture the epidermis, forming a lens shaped openings called lenticels. Lenticels permit the exchange of gases between the outer atmosphere and the internal tissue of the stem. These occur in most woody trees.

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Secondary Growth in Roots

  • In the dicot root, the vascular cambium is completely secondary in origin.
  • It originates from the tissue located just below the phloem bundles, a portion of pericycle tissue, above the protoxylem forming a complete and continuous wavy ring, which later becomes circular.
  • Further events are similar to those already described above for a dicotyledon stem.

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printable pdf file is given in below post…

CHAPTER 6 – ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS

Judgement day : What to do and How to approach the paper..(a complete guide by successful students)

Compose yourself. It’s the day you have worked for.

if you don’t see yourself as a winner, then you won’t perform as a winner”

Anxiety on the exam day is inevitable, but you must not let the anxiety to cloud your mind. Promise yourself that you will stay calm and give your best because you know once you give your best nothing can stop you from getting what you deserve.

You have read well, practiced hard, did all that was needed. Now its show time so here are some tips that will help you in performing better.

  1. Make sure you had a good sleep- a good 6-7 hrs. sleep will relax your mind and increase your efficiency. Don’t stay up till late in night.

 

  1. Eat light- don’t skip the breakfast and try to keep it light as many people feel nauseated before exams due to anxiety and apprehension.

 

  1. Gather your essentials- ensure you have checked all essentials like your admit card, Id proof and whatever else you require foe exams before leaving for the exam to avoid any hassle.

 

  1. Reach your Centre well in time- avoid any rush or hurry and reach your exam centre well on time. Find yourself a quiet place and avoid the gangs voicing their fears and discussing questions.

 

  1. Don’t carry loads of books to exam centre- you don’t want to stress out your mind few hours before exam. So relax, you have read everything before. Don’t start flipping pages of all the books. Either sit relaxed or you may just go through one liners, diagrams and high yield points you have prepared for exams. (follow whichever suits you). Don’t read long paragraphs, it will stress you out. Close all the books atleast 15 minutes before entering the exam hall.

 

  1. Don’t panic seeing the paper- find your seat in the exam hall and make yourself comfortable. 15mins before the exam you will handed the OMR. Very carefully fill in all details like name, roll number. 5 minutes before the exam you will be handed the question paper. When asked open it and don’t panic seeing the paper even if you don’t know the first few questions you saw. Its ok you will figure it out.

 

  1. Attempt your paper in rounds- In the first round attempt the questions you are absolutely sure about, no guess work. Don’t waste time on questions you are facing difficulty with in first round. Don’t attempt physics first as it may consume lot of time which will panic you. It is best to attempt biology first which comprises 50% of the paper and can be completed in less than 45 minutes. It will make you feel good and confident once you complete 50% of the paper and lot of time remaining. Leave the questions that require lengthy calculations or are confusing for second round. once you are done with first round you would have completed most of the ques.

In the second round deal with remaining questions. Think over them, rule out options that can’t be answer, calculate the numericals carefully and chose your answer.

 

  1. Be calculative- before sitting for any exam, you must have an idea about previous years’ cutoff. For an outstanding rank you must be calculative of the risk you must take.
  • Play safe only if you think you attempted fairly above the last years’ cutoff in the first round itself.
  • If you think you attempted just around cutoff in first round then you must make some smart guesses and choose your answers intelligently. Never make blind guesses.
  • If you think you attempted below cutoff score then you must take some risk because it’s do or die.Try ruling out the options to find the most probable answer. You must attempt fair enough questions to get a good rank because no one has 100% accuracy. So attempt sufficiently according to marking scheme and difficulty level of paper.

 

  1. Mind the time- divide your time for each subject in the paper and be aware of the time left with you because you don’t want any silly mistakes and errors in filling OMR that usually happens out of desperation to finish the exam on time. fill in the OMR simultaneously and not at last as will cause errors. Also ensure that no questions go unread, so, manage your time accordingly.

 

  1. Take your time don’t let blunders happen-read ques very carefully and don’t rush to giving answers. Take your time, think well and then mark the answers carefully. Pay attention on words like- not, except, all of these in the questions and options.

 

It’s time to shine. All the very best for the exams.

by –

Biologyaipmt team

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Last Month Tips To Give Your Preparations a Cutting Edge- By Dr. Aparna Tripathi (AIPG 2016 AIR-16)

Yes, its APRIL! Time to put in your best effort and harvest the success.

With the calendar page turned to April and just a month remaining for the AIPMT, I believe it would have surely got the heart rates soaring. The anxiety levels would be high, but remember cracking AIPMT is a game of nerves. One must learn to be calm and focused in this crucial last month of preparation to book your seat in your dream college.

Entrance exams apart from evaluating the knowledge of aspirants also tests their analytical skills and logical thinking capability. Hence, one must study smart and most importantly be aware of what to do and what not to.

Here’s a smart plan to Fast-track your revision plan in the last month and to achieve maximum efficiency.

  1. Categorize your course: firstly, divide whatever you have read till now in 2 categories:
    1. I know it well
    2. I always forget this

For the first category since you know these topics well you just need to revise them once very quickly without wasting time on these topics.

For the second category since you always tend to forget these topics or you find it difficult, these topics must keep passing before your eyes everyday. So mark these topics in your book and make sure to revise them repeatedly.

  1. Divide your day: divide your day into 2 parts. One for revising your 3 subjects- biology, physics and chemistry, the other part for solving previous exam papers. Make a habit of solving one paper everyday in 3 hrs. duration just like you are supposed to do on the exam day.
  1. No study is complete without self-evaluation: keep a check on your performance by giving regular tests and evaluating your performance. After giving every test make sure to analyze the areas you need to improve and in which questions you go wrong. Read those topics well, clear your doubts and don’t repeat those mistakes.
  1. Revise the diagrams in NCERT extremely well: diagrams in NCERT biology textbooks are asked in exam as it is in AIPMT. Make sure you go through these well enough.
  1. Eat healthy, sleep well, think better: It is most important to stay healthy so have good and nutritious food. take a good sleep of atleast 6hrs daily. Take small breaks of 10 minutes to relax your mind and eyes after every 3 hrs. of studying.  Stay away from negative people and negative thoughts. Refrain from social media till your exams.
  1. Believe in your abilities and hard work: your hard work will pay dividends. Don’t let anything demoralize you. Believe that you will do it as you have worked for it. trust your strengths and have faith.

Your dream seat in prestigious medical colleges in the country awaits you. All the very best to all the aspirants.

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11th semester II GSEB Board paper 2016, Biology, Set – 18, Part B(SUBJECTIVE) 30-03-2016

solution of gseb 2016 sem 2 biology subjective paper

11th semester II GSEB Board paper 2016

Biology

Set – 18

Part B

Section A

(2 mark questions)

 

Qs.1       Give the difference between simple and compound leaf.

Ans       

Simple leaf Compound leaf
·   If a single lamina occurs in a leaf or if lamina is incised and incisions are not reaching upto midrib than the leaf is known as simple leaf. ·     Lamina is incised and incisions reach upto midrib or tip of petiole, dividing leaf into many leaflets than the leaf is known as compound leaf.
·   Leaflets are absent ·     Leaflets are present.
·   Axillary bud is present in axil of leaf ·     Axillary bud is absent in axil of leaflets.

 

 

Qs.2       Explain modification of adventitious fibrous roots for storage of food.

Ans

When a fibrous root absorb food and become fleshy, it is called tuberous root.

Simple tuberous root – isolated adventitious root developing from the stem, become tuberous in shape. Theses roots are irregular in shape.

e.g., Sweet potato.

Fasciculated tuberous root – these tuberous roots are present in cluster.

e.g., Asparagus, Dahlia.

 

 

 

Qs.3       Describe the epiphytic roots.

Ans.      

Epiphytes – Epiphytes are the plants which live on branches of trees. They obtain only habitat from host. They do not obtain water, salts, or prepare food from host. They have no contact with soil.

Epiphytic roots – epiphytes have some adventitious roots which remain suspended in air. These roots are spongy, thick, long and greenish. They have a specialized tissue Velamen on their outer surface. The cells of this tissue absorb moisture from atmosphere. These roots are also called hygroscopic roots.

 

 

Qs.4     Describe steler region of Dicot stem.

Ans.      

All tissues on the innerside of the endodermis such as pericycle, vascular bundles and pith constitute the stele.

Pericycle                 –     few layers of thick-walled parenchyomatous cells, Next to endodermis. Initiation of lateral roots and vascular cambium during the secondary growth takes place in these cells.

Vascular bundles         –      Radial/alternate type. Exarch xylem. There are usually two to four xylem and phloem patches. Later, a cambium ring develops between the xylem and phloem.

Conjuctive tissue   –     The parenchymatous cells which lie between the xylem and the phloem are called conjuctive tissue.

Pith                        –     The pith is small or inconspicuous.

 

 

OR

 

Qs.4     Give the differences between heart wood and sap wood.

Ans

Heartwood (Duramen) Sapwood (alburnum)
·   Central part of secondary xylem(wood) ·   Peripheral part of secondary xylem(wood)
·   Dark brown or backish in colour ·   Lighter/yellow in colour
·   deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins etc ·   No deposition of organic matter.
·   Hard and durable ·   soft
·   Provide mechanical support to stem ·   Conduction of water and minerals from roots to leaf.

 

 

Qs.5       Describe the tissue mainly present in the periosteum of the bones and perichondrium of Cartilage.

Ans.      

Tissue mainly present in the periosteum of the bones and perichondrium of Cartilage is White fibrous tissue.

White fibrous connective tissue –

  • It occurs in tendons, which arc elastic cords and connect muscles to the connective tissue sheath which surrounds the bone.
  • White fibres are arranged compactly and parallel in bundles.
  • This kind of tissue is found in places where great strength with limited flexibility is desirable.
  • They are also seen at the joint between cranium bones and make them immovable.

 

 

 

Qs.6     Describe sexual dimorphism in frog?

Ans

Sexual dimorphism – when both sexes male and female are morphologically different.

 

Male Female
·      Two vocal sacs arc present

·      Nuptial pad present in the index finger

·      The skin shows dark yellow colour during breeding season.

·      The abdominal region narrow and flat.

 

·     Vocal sacs are absent

·     Nuptial pad is absent

·     Skin colour is not changed.

·     The abdominal region is broad and buldged.

 

 

 

OR

 

Qs.6     Explain circulatory system in Earthworm?

Ans       

  • In earthworm closed type of circulatory system is found.
  • In circulatory system blood vessels, capillaries and heart arc included.
  • Due to closed circulatory system, blood is confined to the heart and blood vessels.
  • Due to contraction, blood circulates into one direction and smaller blood vessels supply blood to the gut, nerve cord and the body wall.
  • Blood glands are present on the 4th, 5th and 6th segments. Its function is to produce blood cells and haemoglobin which is dissolved in blood plasma.
  • Blood cells are of phagocytic type.
  • In earthworms there is absence of specialized breathing device. Respiratory exchange occurs through moist body surface and oxygen gets mixed into blood stream.

 

 

 

Qs.7     Explain granulocyte WBC.

Ans       

granulocytes WBC have granules in their cytoplasm.

On the basis of staining characteristics of cytoplasm granules and shape of nucleus, granulocytes are of three types.

  • Neutrophils: The neutrophil whose granules stain weakly with both the acidic and basic stain. Neutrophils have many lobed nucleus.
  • Eosinophils (Acidophil): Their granules which stain by acidic dyes such as eosin. Eosinophils are large in size and with bilobed nucleus.
  • Basophils: The basophil he granules of which stain by basic dyes such as methylene blue. Basophils has *S’ shaped nucleus.

 

 

 

Qs.8       Explain excretory organs and process of excretion in cockroach?

Ans

Excretory organs of cockroach are Malpighian tubules.

They are present at the junction of midgut and hindgut. They are about 150 yellowish long, thin and hollow blind tubules. These blind tubules always float in the haemolymph. Each tubule is lined by glandular and ciliated cells. They absorb nitrogenous waste products and convert them into uric acid which is excreted out through the hindgut. Therefore, cockroach is a uricotelic animal. Excretory substances enter into the hindgut having large amount of water. This water is absorbed by the wall of hindgut.

 

 

Section B

(3 mark questions)

Qs.9       Explain the types of ovary on the basis of the position of the ovary?

Ans.

Three kinds of flowers occur on the basis of the position of the ovary.

  1. Hypogynous flower – the thalamus becomes conical so that the ovary occupies the highest position. Such an ovary is called superior, e.g. Mustard. China rose and Datura.
  2. Perigynous flower – the thalamus becomes flat, disc-like. The ovary placed in the centre is semi-inferior. Other floral whorls are arranged on the rim of the thalamus, e.g. Rose, Caesalpinia.
  3. Epigynous flower – the thalamus envelops the ovary. Here, the ovary is inferior. The other three whorls are arranged above the ovary e.g. Sunflower, Cucumber.

 

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OR

 

 

Qs.9       What is composite fruit? Describe the type of composite fruits?

Ans.      

A composite fruit develops from all the flowers of a whole inflorescence forming one body at maturity. There are two types of multiple fruits namely sorosis and syconus.

  • Sorosis:
    • fruit develops from spike inflorescence.
    • The rachis and the flowers along with bracts unite together into fleshy compound fruit.
    • Flowers are usually sterile and seeds are rarely formed.
    • g., pineapple.
  • Syconus:
    • It is derived from a special type of inflorescence known as hypanthodium, which has a fleshy receptacle. It has large number of unisexual flowers. On ripening, the receptacle becomes fleshy and juicy and forms the edible portion.
    • g. Banyan fruit or Fig fruit.

 

 

 

Q.10       Write the floral characters of the family of Solanum nigrum.

Ans.      

Solanum nigrum is a member of Solanaceae family (Potato family).

It is classified as –

Class              –              Dicotyledons

Subclass       –              Gamopetalae

Series            –              Bicarpcllatac

Order            –              Polymoniales

Family           –              Solanaceae

Its floral characters are –

Inflorescence      :       Solitary cyme or monochasial, helicold cyme, apical or axillary.

Flower                    :       Complete, actinomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous.

Calyx                       :       Sepals five, gamosepalous, tubular, valvate, persistent.

Corolla                    :       Petals five, gamopetalous, valvate, variously shaped.

Androecium         :       Stamens five, epipetalous. introse.

Gynoecium          :     Bicarpcllary, Syncarpous, ovary superior, many ovules in each locule, Placentation axile.

Fruit                        :       Capsule or berry, seed endospermic.

Floral formula      :1.jpg

 

 

 

Q.11       Explain female reproductive system of cockroach?

Ans.      

  • Cockroaches arc unisexual animals and both sexes have well developed reproductive organs.
  • female reproductive system of cockroach consists of –
    • 2 ovaries
    • Oviduct
    • Vagina
    • Spermatheca
  • Ovaries – two ovaries are present laterally in the 2 to 6 abdominal segments. Each ovary is formed of a group of eight ovarian tubules or ovarioles containing a chain of developing ova.
  • Oviducts – carry ova into vagina.
  • Vagina – opens into genital chamber.
  • Spermatheca – A pair of spermatheca is present in the 6th segment.

 

During copulation ovum come in the genital chamber, where they are fertilised by sperms. A dark brown coloured ootheca is formed by the group of fertilized eggs. Each ootheca has 14 to 16 eggs which give rise to nymphs.

 

 

 

 

 

Q.12       Explain pulmonary respiration and its steps in frog?

Ans.

  • Respiration takes place through lungs in terrestrial habitat is called pulmonary respiration.
  • The system consists of respiratory tracts and lungs.
  • There are two respiratory tracts, each respiratory tract starts from an external nostril. It opens into the bucco-pharyngeal cavity. Bucco-pharyngcal cavity leads into a sac called laryngotracheal chamber through glottis. This laryngotracheal chamber opens into lungs.
  • The entire process of pulmonary respiration is completed in three steps: (1) Aspiration, (2) Inspiration and (3) Expiration.
    1. Aspiration: The entry of the gases into the buccopha­ryngeal cavity is called aspiration.
    2. Inspiration: The gases pass through the bucco-pharyngeal cavity to lungs is called inspiration, during this process diffusion of oxygen occurred.
    3. Expiration: The passage of impure air from the lungs to the outside of the body is called expiration.

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OR

 

Q.12       Explain the digestive gland, which secretes bile pigments in frog?

Ans.

  • Bile pigment is secreted by Liver in frog.
  • Liver is the largest gland found in the frog.
  • It is a dark brown coloured gland located close to the heart and lungs.
  • Liver is divided into two lobes and the left is again sub divided so it appears trilobed.
  • A gall bladder lies between the right and left (lateral) lobes.
  • The liver secretes greenish liquid called bile which contains bile salts and bile pigments like bilirubin and biliverdin
  • Bile juice is stored in gall bladder.
  • The bile is transported to gall bladder by small hepatic ducts. Cystic ducts from gall bladder and hepatic ducts from liver combine to form a common bile duct. The bile duct passes through the pancreas and receives numerous pancreatic ducts. Now the bile duct is called heptopancreatic duct. It opens into the duodenum.
  • Bile has no digestive enzymes, it only emulsifies fat so that liver is not truly a digestive gland.

 

 

Q.13       Explain the structure of various components of complex tissue associated with transportation of water.

Ans.

  • Complex tissue associated with transportation of water and mineral ions is xylem.
  • Xylem consists of tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.
  • Tracheids and vessels –
    • They are the main water transporting elements.
    • Tracheids and vessels have secondary wall thickening and lose their cytoplasm at maturity; hence they are dead yet functional.
    • Tracheids have pointed ends and overlap each other, whereas vessel elements have open end walls and are arranged end to end to form a larger unit called vessel.
    • Tracheids are found in pteridophytes and gymnosperms, while vessels are present in angiosperms.
  • Xylem parenchyma –
    • They are living cells and they store starch, lipid, tannin and crystalline substances.
  • Xylem fibres –
    • They have highly thickened walls and provide mechanical support.

 

 

 

 

Qs.14     Describe the simplest and most widely distributed connective tissue?

Ans.

Areolar tissue is the simplest and the most widely distributed connective tissue.

It is also called loose connective tissue.

It is made up of fibres and cells.

Fibers – two types of fibres: White and yellow.

  • White fibres are wavy, unbranched and are arranged in bundles. They are made up of collagen protein.
  • Yellow fibres are few in number, more slender and are not arranged in bundles. They are single fibres branched and joined with one another to form a delicate network. They are made of elastin.

Cells –     cells present in ground substance are fibroblast, macrophages (histocytes) and mast cells.

  • Fibroblasts are the main cells of the tissue. They synthesize two kinds of proteins – collagen and elastin.
  • Phagocytic cell or histocyte are motile and ingest foreign particles, and is thus called macrophage. Thus these cells help in the defense of the body.
  • Mast cells are also irregular in shape and large in size. They contain three active substances: heparin, histamine and serotonin.

 

 

 

Section C

(4 mark questions)

 

Qs.15     Explain modification of root, stem, leaf for climbing with example?

Ans:

(A) Modification of root for climbing –

Climbing or clinging roots –

Plants growing as twinners and climbers possess weak stems so they possess modified structures for climbing.

In Pothos,long branched or unbranched, brown adventitious roots develop from nodes and internodes of the stem. They are called climbing or clingingroots. They secrete a sticky material which helps them to stick to the support, and helps them in climbing.

(B) Modification of stem for climbing –

Stem tendrils –

Examples are Passion flower, Cucurbita, Bittergourd, etc.

In these plants, the axillary buds modified into thin, long, threadlike structures. These are called Stem tendrils.

They twine around the support and help the plant in climbing.

(C) Modification of leaf for climbing –

Leaf tendril –

Leaf apex – Gloriosa.

Stipules – Smilax

Terminal leaflets of a compound leaf – Pea

Leaf hook –

In Bignonia, three terminal leaflets become hook-like or clawed.

 

 

Qs.16     Explain male reproductive system of frog with diagram?

Ans:

Frog is a unisexual animal.

male reproductive system

Male reproductive organs include a pair of testes, vasa efferentia, Bidder’s canal and urinogenital ducts.

Testis                            –          Each testis is located at the antero-lateral part of the kidney. It is oval-shaped, small and yellowish in colour. It remains connected to the kidney by mesorchium. It produce sperms.

Vasa efferentia         –           The sperms produce in testes are transported to Vasa efferentia.

Bidder’s canal            –           it connects vasa efferentia to urinogenital duct.

urinogenital ducts    –           they carry sperms to cloaca.

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OR

 

 

Qs.16     Explain voluntary nervous system and draw the diagram of dorsal view of brain of frog?

Ans:

Nervous system of frog

  • Nervous system of frog is located on the dorsal side of the body.

 

  • It is divided into two sections. (1) Voluntary nervous system and (2) Involuntary nervous system.

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  • The regulation of voluntary nervous system is under the willingness of animals.
  • Voluntary nervous system divides into central and peripheral nervous system.
  • Central nervous system –
    • It consists of brain and a spinal cord.
    • Brain is situated in the head and protected within the
    • Brain is divided into three regions : fore brain, mid brain and hind brain.
      • Fore brain includes a pair of olfactory lobes, a pair of cerebral hemispheres and diencephalons.
      • On the ventral side of diencephalons one hollow, bilobed and pouch like part is located, which is known as infundibulum. Pituitary gland is attached to the broad posterior end of it. It is master endocrine gland controlling various physiological activities, animal growth and development.
      • The mid brain includes of two large oval and obliquely arranged optic lobes.
      • Hind brain is composed of cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata continues as the spinal cord in the vertebral column.
    • Spinal cord presentsin the trunk region and terminates in the hollow cavity of urostyle of a vetebral column as a filum terminale.
  • Peripheral nervous system –
    • The peripheral nervous system is formed by cranial nerves and spinal nerves arising from brain and spinal cord respectively.
    • In frog 10 pairs of cranial nerves from brain and 9 pairsof spinal nerves from spinal cord arise.

 

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Qs. 17    Describe the structure of adult bone?

Ans.

  • Bone is a specialized connective tissue.
  • Some of the features of this tissue are as follows :
    • It is highly vascular, mineralized, hard and rigid.
    • It is resilient
    • It has a regenerating capacity
    • It has a canalicular system.
  • The mature bone is composed of two kinds of tissues: (a) the compact bone and (b) spongy.
  • The ground substance or the matrix iscomposed of protein called osseinand various inorganic salts of lime, likecalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate and calcium fluorides.
  • In adult bone flat irregular spaces called lacuna occurs in the solid matrix and each lacuna contains a flat bone cell or osteocyte.
  • An osteocyte has an irregular shape and long cytoplasmic process. These processes extendedinto minute canals radiating from each lacuna.
  • The lacunae are in communication with oneanother by fine canalicules.
  • In a long dried bone of frog, large number of lamellae are present in a ground substance.
  • In the center there is a narrow cavity of the bone. It contains a tissue known as the bone marrow which is yellow in colour. It is composed of adipose tissue, blood vessels, etc.
  • The bone increases in thickness by the addition of successive layers to the outside as well as to the innerside.
  • In mammalian bones many column like structures are seen called Haversian system. In each Haversian system, several concentric layers (lamellae) of bony matrix encircle a longitudinal central canal (Haversian canal). This canal carries blood vessels and
  • Spongy bones are found in vertebrae, ribs, skull, etc. It contains red bone marrow, which is the seat for formation of erythrocytes and granulocytes.

 

 

 

Qs. 18    Explain the structure of monocot seed with the help of diagram?

Ans :

Maize is a typical example of monocotyledon seed (endospermic seed).

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  • Maize grain is flat, yellow, narrow at one end and broad at the other end.
  • If the seed is cut longitudinally into two parts and the cut face stained with iodine, the endosperm part will appear deep blue because of starch and the embryo part will appear yellowish.

 

  • Structure of monocot seed –

 

  1. Hull – it is the outermost, tough covering formed through fusion of pericarp and seed coat.
  2. Aleurone layer – It is present under the hull. It is made up of big square or rectangular cells. Grains of proteins are stored in these cells.
  3. Cotyledon – it is single, thin and shield-shaped and present in the embryonic region. It is also called scutellum.  The outer layer of scutellum which remains in contact with endosperm is called epithelial layer.
  1. Endosperm – it is large part which stores food mainly in the form of starch.
  2. Embryo – it is present and attached at the narrow end of scutellum.Its one end form plumule, which gives rise to shoot system and its protective covering is called coleoptile.At the other end of embyoradicle is present, which gives rise to root system and its protective covering is called coleorhiza.

 

 

printable pdf of solution is given here.

11th semester II GSEB Board paper 2016 part b solution